Product Category

Primer Pairs

R&D Systems' PCR Primer Pairs are carefully designed and tested, so you spend less time optimizing PCR. Primer pairs are available for measuring the expression of specific human, mouse and rat mRNAs by RT-PCR.

Primer Pairs are now available for several areas of research and have been utilized in qualitative RT-PCR analyses1-10 (Figure 1).

  • Angiogenesis
  • Apoptosis
  • Metabolism
  • Chemokines and Chemokine Receptors
  • Cytokines
  • DNA Damage & Repair
  • Neural Stem Cells
  • Proteases
  • Telomeres
  • TNFSF (tumor necrosis factor superfamily) Members
  • Toll-like Receptors

Package Components (25 tests)

  • Primer Pair 375 pmoles of each primer. Desalted.
  • Positive Control 150 ng synthetic double-stranded DNA. Desalted.
Figure 1. Qualitative RT-PCR analyses. RT-PCR reactions were performed as described in the primer pair product insert. PCR products were amplified using the indicated primer pair and a first-strand cDNA source known to express the target gene. PCR products (10 µL/well) were electrophoresed on a 1.5% agarose gel and visualized with ethidium bromide staining (h=human, m=mouse,m/r=mouse/rat).

Quality and Performance

R&D Systems' Primer Pairs must meet rigorous standards at each step of their design, production, and validation. Primer Pairs are designed using several important parameters, including optimal length, Tm, and GC content, as well as meeting set criteria regarding stability and secondary structure. All primers are optimized to work under the same PCR reaction conditions so that multiple PCR reactions using different primers can be run simultaneously on the same instrument. Primer Pairs are produced in house, and all sequences are confirmed through nested PCR analysis. Each set of primers is then carefully tested to verify functionality and size.


  1. Arnett, H.A. et al. (2001) TNF-a promotes proliferation of oligodendrocyte progenitors and remyelination. Nat. Neurosci. 4:116; TNF RI (RDP-80); TNF RII (RDP-62)
    Sample Type: mouse forebrain RNA
  2. Banerjee, A.R. et al. (2001) Localization of matrix metalloproteinase I in cholesteatoma and deep meatal skin. Otol. Neurotol. 22:579; MMP-1 (RDP-83)
    Sample Type: human cholesteatoma and deep metal tissue
  3. Benyo, D. et al. (2001) Expression of inflammatory cytokines in placentas from women with preeclampsia. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 86:2505; ß-actin (RDP-38); TNF-alpha (RDP-10)
    Sample Type: human placental homogenate RNA from biopsies
  4. Brouty-Boye, D. et al. (2000) Chemokines and CD40 expression in human fibroblasts. Eur. J. Immunol. 30:914; IL-8 (RDP-25); MCP-1 (RDP-24); RANTES (RDP-23)
    Sample Type: RNA from individual fibroblast cutures: human fibroblasts from bone marrow, spleen, lung tissue, breast tissue (carcinoma)
  5. de Bont, E.S.G.M. et al. (2001) Mobilized human CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells enhance tumor growth in a nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient mouse model of human non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Cancer Res. 61:7654; ANG-2 (RDP-52)
    Sample Type: mouse RNA from tumor tissue
  6. Hashimoto, T. et al. (2001) Abnormal balance in the Angiopoietin-Tie2 system in human brain arteriovenous malformations. Circ. Res. 89:111; ANG-1 (RDP-51); ANG-2 (RDP-52); TIE-2 (RDP-50)
    Sample Type: human mRNA from brain arteriovenus malformations (BAVMs) and controls
  7. Joyner, J.L. et al. (2000) Effects of group streptococci on cord and adult mononuclear cell interleukin-12 and interferon-? mRNA accumulation and protein secretion. J. Infect. Dis. 182:974; IL-12p40 (RDP-13); IFN-gamma (RDP-14)
    Sample Type: human umbilical cord and adult mononuclear cell RNA
  8. Talukder, A.H. et al. (2000) Heregulin induces expression, DNA binding activity, and transactivation fucntions of basic leucine zipper activating transcription factor 4. Cancer Res. 60:276; E-selectin (RDP-18)
    Sample Type: RNA from breast cancer MCF-7 cells and colon cancer LS17rT, Cac92, & FET cells
  9. Zaugg, M. et al. (2001) Anabolic-androgenic steroids induce apoptotic cell death in adult rat ventricular myocytes. J. Cell.Physiol. 187:90; Bax-alpha (RDP-43)
    Sample Type: RNA from adult rat ventricular monocytes isolated from the heart
  10. Cognasse F. et al. (2003) HIV-gp160 modulates differentially the production in vitro of I IgA and cytokines by blood and tonsil B lymophocytes from HIV negative individuals. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 132:304; IL-1 beta (RDP-16); IL-12 (RDP-13); IL-6 (RDP-15); IL-2 (RDP-12); TNF-alpha (RDP-10); IFN-gamma (RDP-14); TGF-beta 1 (RDP-26); IL-10 (RDP-11); IL-4 (RDP-47); ß-actin (RDP-38)
    Sample Type: mRNA from CD19+ purified B cells