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"Primary Antibodies" has 106 results in Resources.

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Conjugated Primary Antibodies

Product Categories

R&D Systems offers a wide variety of conjugated primary antibodies allowing you to analyze multiple targets with ease. Our extensive selection of conjugated antibodies in a variety of fluorescent and enzymatic labels allows you to customize your experiment. We offer bright conjugates for low abundance analytes and subdued dyes for high abundance targets. Find your antibody panel today! See...

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Primary Antibody Selection & Optimization

Protocols

The most important factor when designing an IHC/ICC experiment is selection of the primary antibody. In turn, the critical feature of a primary antibody is specificity for the epitope. All steps of an IHC/ICC experiment must be optimized to visualize specific staining and minimize non-specific background signals. This includes performing initial studies to determine the appropriate incubation...

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Primary Rat Cortical Stem Cells

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Rat Cortical Stem Cells (Catalog # NSC001) Ex vivo expanded neural stem cells serve as excellent tools for researchers studying neural development and neurological disorders. R&D Systems offers ready-to-use primary cortical stem cells isolated from E14.5 Sprague-Dawley rats. These cells are designated as passage 0 (P0) cells. Cells were cultured as a monolayer system. After 5 days the cells...

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Primary Rat Mesenchymal Stem Cells

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Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), also known as mesenchymal stromal cells, are adult stem cells traditionally found in the bone marrow. However, MSCs can also be isolated from other tissues including cord blood, peripheral blood, fallopian tube, and fetal liver and lung. Cultured MSCs are an excellent tool for the study of adipocyte, osteocyte, and chondrocyte differentiation. R&D Systems offers...

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IL-21 Signaling Pathways and their Primary Biological Effects in Different Immune Cell Types

Pathways

Interleukin-21 (IL-21) is the most recently described cytokine belonging to the common cytokine receptor gamma-chain family. Like other common gamma chain family members, IL-21 is a four alpha-helix bundle type I cytokine. It signals through a receptor complex consisting of IL-21 R and common gamma-chain/IL-2 R gamma. IL-21 is produced primarily by CD4+ T cells and natural killer T (NKT) cells...

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Troubleshooting Guide: Western Blot Figures

Protocols

Figure 1 – Effect of Varying Primary Antibody Concentration: Western blot optimization using R&D Systems rabbit anti-human/mouse/rat RSK1 affinity purified polyclonal antibody (Catalog # AF992). Human HeLa cells were solubilized in SDS gel buffer, and lysate from 1 x 105 cells per lane was resolved by SDS-PAGE. Following electrophoresis, proteins were transferred to an Immobilon-P membrane...

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Immunohistochemistry Troubleshooting Guide

Technical Resource

Technically, IHC and ICC are relatively simple and straightforward experimental methods. However, there are many variables which must be identified and optimized for each individual IHC/ICC study. Optimization of IHC/ICC may also require troubleshooting a variety of factors. The tables below highlight common IHC/ICC issues and provide appropriate experimental actions. For further assistance,...

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Troubleshooting Guide: Immunohistochemistry

Protocols

Technically, IHC and ICC are relatively simple and straightforward experimental methods. However, there are many variables which must be identified and optimized for each individual IHC/ICC study. Optimization of IHC/ICC may also require troubleshooting a variety of factors. The tables below highlight common IHC/ICC issues and provide appropriate experimental actions. For further assistance,...

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Troubleshooting Guide: Western Blot

Protocols

For further assistance, please contact our technical service department. Observation: No Bands Observed Observation: Faint Bands (Weak Signal) Observation: Extra Bands Observation: High Background Observation: Diffuse Bands Observation: White Bands (ECL method) Observation: Patchy uneven spots all over the blot   Observation: No Bands Observed Possible...

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Detection & Visualization of Antibody Binding

Protocols

Following incubation with the primary antibody, antibody binding is visualized using an appropriate detection system. The method of detection can be direct or indirect, and may generate a fluorescent or chromogenic signal. Direct detection involves the use of primary antibodies that are directly conjugated to a label. Indirect detection methods utilize a labeled secondary antibody raised against...

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