Human CD28 Biotinylated Antibody
Human CD28 Biotinylated Antibody Summary
Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
Preparation and Storage
- 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 degreesC as supplied. 1 month, 2 to 8 degreesC under sterile conditions after reconstitution. 6 months, -20 to -70 degreesC under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
CD28 and CTLA-4, together with their ligands, B7-1 and B7-2, constitute one of the dominant costimulatory pathways that regulate T and B cell responses. CD28 and CTLA-4 are structurally homologous molecules that are members of the immunoglobulin (Ig) gene superfamily. Both CD28 and CTLA-4 are composed of a single Ig V-like extracellular domain, a transmembrane domain and an intracellular domain. CD28 and CTLA-4 are both expressed on the cell surface as disulfide-linked homodimers or as monomers. The genes encoding these two molecules are closely linked on human chromosome 2 and mouse chromosome 1. Mouse CD28 is expressed constitutively on virtually 100% of mouse T cells and on developing thymocytes. Cell surface expression of mouse CD28 is down-regulated upon ligation of CD28 in the presence of PMA or PHA. In contrast, CTLA-4 is not expressed constitutively but is up-regulated rapidly following T cell activation and CD28 ligation. Cell surface expression of mouse CTLA-4 peaks approximately 48 hours after activation. Although both CTLA-4 and CD28 can bind to the same ligands, CTLA-4 binds to B7-1 and B7-2 with a 20 - 100 fold higher affinity than CD28. CD28/B7 interaction has been shown to prevent apoptosis of activated T cells via the upregulation of bcl-X L. CD28 ligation has also been shown to regulate Th1/Th2 differentiation.
- Lenschow, D.J. et al. (1996) Annu. Rev. Immunol. 14:233.
- Hathcock, K.S. and R.J. Hodes (1996) Advances in Immunol. 62:131.
- Ward, S.G. (1996) Biochem. J. 318:361.
Citations for Human CD28 Biotinylated Antibody
R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.
Citations: Showing 1 - 2
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A reproducible method for the enumeration of functional (cytokine producing) versus non-functional peptide-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in human peripheral blood.
Authors: Markovic SN, Nevala WK, Uhl CB, Celis E, McKean DJ
Clin. Exp. Immunol., 2006;145(3):438-47.
Applications: Binding Assay
Autoantibodies against CD28 are associated with atopic diseases.
Authors: Neuber K, Mahnss B, Hubner C, Gergely H, Weichenthal M
Clin. Exp. Immunol., 2006;146(2):262-9.
Sample Types: Recombinant Protein
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