Human GITR Ligand/TNFSF18 Antibody

Catalog # Availability Size / Price Qty
AF694
AF694-SP

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Citations (1)
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Human GITR Ligand/TNFSF18 Antibody Summary

Species Reactivity
Human
Specificity
Detects human GITR Ligand/TNSF18 in direct ELISAs and Western blots. In direct ELISAs, less than 2% cross-reactivity with recombinant mouse GITR Ligand is observed.
Source
Polyclonal Goat IgG
Purification
Antigen Affinity-purified
Immunogen
S. frugiperda insect ovarian cell line Sf 21-derived recombinant human GITR Ligand/TNFSF18
Glu52-Ser177
Accession # Q9UNG2
Formulation
Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with Trehalose. *Small pack size (SP) is supplied either lyophilized or as a 0.2 µm filtered solution in PBS.
Endotoxin Level
<0.10 EU per 1 μg of the antibody by the LAL method.
Label
Unconjugated

Applications

Recommended Concentration
Sample
Western Blot
0.1 µg/mL
Recombinant Human GITR Ligand/TNFSF18 (Catalog # 694-GL)
Flow Cytometry
2.5 µg/106 cells
HUVEC human umbilical vein endothelial cells
Blockade of Receptor-ligand Interaction
In a functional ELISA, <5 µg/mL of this antibody will block 50% of the binding of 10 ng/mL of biotinylated Recombinant Human GITR Ligand/TNFSF18 to immobilized Recombinant Human GITR/TNFRSF18 Fc Chimera (Catalog # 689-GR) coated at 2 µg/mL (100 µL/well). At 50 μg/mL, this antibody will block >90% of the binding.
 
CyTOF-ready
Ready to be labeled using established conjugation methods. No BSA or other carrier proteins that could interfere with conjugation.
 

Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.

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Preparation and Storage

Reconstitution
Reconstitute at 0.2 mg/mL in sterile PBS.
Reconstitution Buffer Available
Reconstitution Buffer 1 (PBS)
Catalog #
Availability
Size / Price
Qty
RB01
Shipping
The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below. *Small pack size (SP) is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at -20 to -70 °C
Stability & Storage
Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.

Background: GITR Ligand/TNFSF18

GITR (glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor superfamily-related protein, also named AITR, activation-inducible TNF receptor superfamily-related protein) and GITR ligand (GITRL) are novel members of the TNF receptor (TNFR) and TNF superfamilies (SF) that have been designated TNFRSF18 and TNFSF18, respectively. Human GITRL cDNA encodes a 177 amino acid residues type II membrane protein. The carboxy-terminal extracellular domain shows sequence identity to TNF/TNFSF2 (21%), Fas ligand/TNFSF6 (21%), TRAIL/TNFSF10 (18%), and lymphotoxin alpha /TNFSF1 (18%). GITRL is constitutively expressed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells but is not expressed in resting or stimulated T cell lines, B cell lines or peripheral blood mononuclear cells. GITR, the receptor for GITRL, is expressed at low levels in peripheral blood T cells, bone marrow, thymus, spleen and lymph nodes. In contrast to mouse GITR, expression of human GITR is not induced by treatment with dexamethasone, but is up-regulated by antigen-receptor stimulation or by treatment with soluble anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28 or PMA plus ionomycin. Ligation of GITR has been found to induce nuclear factor (NF)-kappa B activation via TNF receptor-associated factor 2 and protect cells from TCR activation-induced cell death. It has been proposed that GITRL and GITR may modulate T lymphocyte functions in peripheral tissues.

References
  1. Nocentini, G. et al. (1997) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94:6216.
  2. Kwon, B. et al. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274:6056.
  3. Gurney, A.L. et al. (1999) Current Biology 9:215.
  4. Kwon, B. et al. (1999) Current Opinion in Immunology 11:340.
Long Name
Glucocorticoid Induced TNF Receptor Family Related Gene Ligand
Entrez Gene IDs
8995 (Human); 240873 (Mouse); 364031 (Rat)
Alternate Names
Activation-inducible TNF-related ligand; AITRL; AITRLMGC138237; GITR Ligand; GITRL; GITRLglucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related protein ligand; Glucocorticoid-induced TNF-related ligand; hGITRLGITR ligand; TL6AITR ligand; TNFSF18; tumor necrosis factor (ligand) superfamily, member 18; tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 18

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Citation for Human GITR Ligand/TNFSF18 Antibody

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

1 Citation: Showing 1 - 1

  1. Neutralization of tumor-derived soluble glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related protein ligand increases NK cell anti-tumor reactivity.
    Authors: Baltz KM, Krusch M, Baessler T, Schmiedel BJ, Bringmann A, Brossart P, Salih HR
    Blood, 2008;112(9):3735-43.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
    Applications: ELISA Development

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Secondary Antibodies

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