hh Human IGF-II Antibody AF-292-NA: R&D Systems

Human IGF-II Antibody

(6 citations)   
  • Species Reactivity
    Human
  • Specificity
    Detects human IGF-II in direct ELISAs and Western blots. In direct ELISAs, approximately 60% cross-reactivity with recombinant mouse IGF‑II is observed and less than 1% cross-reactivity with recombinant human IGF-I is observed.
  • Source
    Polyclonal Goat IgG
  • Purification
    Antigen Affinity-purified
  • Immunogen
    E. coli-derived recombinant human IGF-II
    Ala25-Glu91
    Accession # P01344
  • Formulation
    Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with Trehalose. *Small pack size (SP) is supplied as a 0.2 µm filtered solution in PBS.
  • Endotoxin Level
    <0.10 EU per 1 μg of the antibody by the LAL method.
  • Label
    Unconjugated
Applications
  •  
    Recommended
    Concentration
    Sample
  • Western Blot
    0.1 µg/mL
    Recombinant Human IGF-II (Catalog # 292-G2)
  • Immunohistochemistry
    5-15 µg/mL
    See below
  • Neutralization
    Measured by its ability to neutralize IGF‑II-induced proliferation in the MCF‑7 human breast cancer cell line [Karey, K.P. et al. (1988) Cancer Research 48:4083]. The Neutralization Dose (ND50) is typically 0.2-0.8 µg/mL in the presence of 14 ng/mL Recombinant Human IGF‑II.
Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
Data Examples
Cell Proliferation Induced by IGF‑II and Neutralization by Human IGF‑II Antibody.

Recombinant Human IGF‑II (Catalog # 292-G2) stimulates proliferation in the MCF‑7 human breast cancer cell line in a dose-dependent manner (orange line). Proliferation elicited by Recombinant Human IGF‑II (14 ng/mL) is neutralized (green line) by increasing concentrations of Goat Anti-Human IGF-II Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF-292-NA). The ND50 is typically 0.2-0.8 µg/mL.

Immunohistochemistry
IGF‑II in Human Placenta.

IGF‑II was detected in immersion fixed paraffin-embedded sections of human placenta (chorionic villi) using 5 µg/mL Goat Anti-Human IGF‑II Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF‑292‑NA) overnight at 4 °C. Before incubation with the primary antibody tissue was subjected to heat-induced epitope retrieval using Antigen Retrieval Reagent-Basic (Catalog # CTS013). Tissue was stained with the Anti-Goat HRP-AEC Cell & Tissue Staining Kit (red; Catalog # CTS009) and counterstained with hematoxylin (blue). View our protocol for Chromogenic IHC Staining of Paraffin-embedded Tissue Sections.

Preparation and Storage
  • Reconstitution
    Reconstitute at 0.2 mg/mL in sterile PBS.
  • Shipping
    The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below. *Small pack size (SP) is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at -20 to -70 °C
  • Stability & Storage
    Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
    • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
    • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
    • 6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Background: IGF-II

Insulin-like growth factor I (also known as somatomedin C and somatomedin A) and insulin-like growth factor II (multiplication stimulating activity or MSA) belong to the family of insulin-like growth factors that are structurally homologous to proinsulin. Mature IGF-I and IGF-II share approximately 70% sequence identity. Both IGF-I and IGF-II are expressed in many tissues and cell types and may have autocrine, paracrine and endocrine functions. Mature IGF-I and IGF-II are highly conserved (100% identity between human, bovine, and porcine proteins) and exhibit cross-species activity.

IGF-II is a potent mitogenic growth factor. However, unlike IGF-I which has important postnatal roles, the growth-promoting function of IGF-II is limited to embryonic development.

Two specific cell surface receptors that bind IGF-I and IGF-II have been identified. The type I IGF receptor that participates in IGF signaling is structurally related to the insulin receptor. It is a disulfide-linked heterotetrameric transmembrane glycoprotein with an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain. Type I IGF receptor binds IGF-I with higher affinity than IGF-II. The type II IGF receptor which binds IGF-II with much higher affinity than IGF-I is also the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor. At the present time, it is not known if the type II IGF receptor participates in the IGF signaling pathway. An additional unknown receptor which mediates IGF‑II signaling has also been proposed. Circulating IGFs exist in complexes bound to IGF binding proteins. Currently, at least six high affinity binding proteins have been identified.

  • Long Name:
    Insulin-like Growth Factor II
  • Entrez Gene IDs:
    3481 (Human); 16002 (Mouse)
  • Alternate Names:
    C11orf43; chromosome 11 open reading frame 43; FLJ22066; FLJ44734; IGF2; IGF-2; IGFII; IGF-II; insulin-like growth factor 2 (somatomedin A); insulin-like growth factor II; insulin-like growth factor type 2; MSA; PP9974; somatomedin-A
Related Research Areas
Citations:

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

6 Citations: Showing 1 - 6
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Species
Applications
Sample Type
  1. Cancer cell-secreted IGF2 instigates fibroblasts and bone marrow-derived vascular progenitor cells to promote cancer progression
    Authors: WW Xu, B Li, XY Guan, SK Chung, Y Wang, YL Yip, SY Law, KT Chan, NP Lee, KW Chan, LY Xu, EM Li, SW Tsao, QY He, AL Cheung
    Nat Commun, 2017;8(0):14399.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Neut
  2. A subset of bone marrow stromal cells regulate ATP-binding cassette gene expression via insulin-like growth factor-I in a leukemia cell line.
    Authors: Benabbou N, Mirshahi P, Bordu C, Faussat A, Tang R, Therwath A, Soria J, Marie J, Mirshahi M
    Int J Oncol, 2014;45(4):1372-80.
  3. 'Big'-insulin-like growth factor-II signaling is an autocrine survival pathway in gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
    Authors: Rikhof B, van der Graaf WT, Suurmeijer AJ, van Doorn J, Meersma GJ, Groenen PJ, Schuuring EM, Meijer C, de Jong S
    Am. J. Pathol., 2012;181(1):303-12.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Tissue Homogenates
    Application: WB
  4. Development and validation of sandwich ELISA microarrays with minimal assay interference.
    Authors: Gonzalez RM, Seurynck-Servoss SL, Crowley SA
    J. Proteome Res., 2008;7(6):2406-14.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Serum
    Application: ELISA Microarray Development
  5. Insulin-like growth factor-II is increased in systemic sclerosis-associated pulmonary fibrosis and contributes to the fibrotic process via Jun N-terminal kinase- and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase-dependent pathways.
    Authors: Hsu E, Feghali-Bostwick CA
    Am. J. Pathol., 2008;172(6):1580-90.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: ICC
  6. The role of matrix metalloproteinase-7 in redefining the gastric microenvironment in response to Helicobacter pylori.
    Authors: McCaig C, Duval C, Hemers E, Steele I, Pritchard DM, Przemeck S, Dimaline R, Ahmed S, Bodger K, Kerrigan DD, Wang TC, Dockray GJ, Varro A
    Gastroenterology, 2006;130(6):1754-63.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Cell Lysates
    Application: WB
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