Human PD-1 Alexa Fluor® 750-conjugated Antibody

Recombinant Monoclonal Antibody
Catalog # Availability Size / Price Qty
FAB10863S-100UG
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Human PD-1 Alexa Fluor® 750-conjugated Antibody Summary

Species Reactivity
Human
Specificity
Detects human PD-1 in direct ELISAs.
Source
Recombinant Monoclonal Rabbit IgG Clone # 2335A
Purification
Protein A or G purified from cell culture supernatant
Immunogen
Mouse myeloma cell line, NS0-derived human PD-1
Met1-Gln167
Accession # Q15116
Formulation
Supplied 0.2 mg/mL in a saline solution containing BSA and Sodium Azide.
Label
Alexa Fluor 750

Applications

Recommended Concentration
Sample
Flow Cytometry
0.25-1 µg/106 cells
Human PBMC treated with PHA

Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.

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Preparation and Storage

Shipping
The product is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage
Protect from light. Do not freeze.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, 2 to 8 °C as supplied.

Background: PD-1

Programmed Death-1 receptor (PD-1), also known as CD279, is type I transmembrane protein belonging to the CD28 family of immune regulatory receptors (1). Other members of this family include CD28, CTLA-4, ICOS, and BTLA (2-5). Mature human PD-1 consists of a 148 amino acid (aa) extracellular region (ECD) with one immunoglobulin-like V-type domain, a 24 aa transmembrane domain, and a 95 aa cytoplasmic region. The human PD-1 ECD shares 65% aa sequence identity with the mouse PD-1 ECD. The cytoplasmic tail contains two tyrosine residues that form the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) and immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motif (ITSM) that are important for mediating PD-1 signaling. PD-1 acts as a monomeric receptor and interacts in a 1:1 stoichiometric ratio with its ligands PD-L1 (B7-H1) and PD-L2 (B7-DC) (6, 7). PD‑1 is expressed on activated T cells, B cells, monocytes, and dendritic cells while PD-L1 expression is constitutive on the same cells and also on nonhematopoietic cells such as lung endothelial cells and hepatocytes (8, 9). Ligation of PD-L1 with PD-1 induces co-inhibitory signals on T cells promoting their apoptosis, anergy, and functional exhaustion (10). Thus, the PD-1: PD-L1 interaction is a key regulator of the threshold of immune response and peripheral immune tolerance (11). Finally, blockade of the PD-1: PD-L1 interaction by either antibodies or genetic manipulation accelerates tumor eradication and shows potential for improving cancer immunotherapy (12, 13, 14).

References
  1. Ishida, Y. et al. (1992) EMBO J. 11:3887.
  2. Sharpe, A.H. and G. J. Freeman (2002) Nat. Rev. Immunol. 2:116.
  3. Coyle, A. and J. Gutierrez-Ramos (2001) Nat. Immunol. 2:203.
  4. Nishimura, H. and T. Honjo (2001) Trends Immunol. 22:265.
  5. Watanabe, N et al. (2003) Nat. Immunol. 4:670.
  6. Zhang, X. et al. (2004) Immunity 20:337.
  7. Lázár-Molnár, E. et al. (2008) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105:10483.
  8. Nishimura, H et al. (1996) Int. Immunol. 8:773.
  9. Keir, M.E. et al. (2008) Annu. Rev. Immunol. 26:677.
  10. Butte, M.J. et al. (2007) Immunity 27:111.
  11. Okazaki, T. et al. (2013) Nat. Immunol. 14:1212.
  12. Iwai, Y. et al. (2002) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99: 12293.
  13. Nogrady, B. (2014) Nature 513:S10.
  14. Swaika, A. et al. (2015) Mol. Immunol. 67: 4
Long Name
Programmed Death-1
Entrez Gene IDs
5133 (Human); 18566 (Mouse); 301626 (Rat); 486213 (Canine); 102123659 (Cynomolgus Monkey)
Alternate Names
CD279 antigen; CD279; hPD-1; PD1; PD-1; PD1hPD-l; PDCD1; programmed cell death 1; programmed cell death protein 1; Protein PD-1; SLEB2

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