Human PD-1 Antibody

Catalog # Availability Size / Price Qty
AF1086
AF1086-SP
Detection of Human PD‑1 by Western Blot.
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Product Details
Citations (20)
FAQs
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Reviews (5)

Human PD-1 Antibody Summary

Species Reactivity
Human
Specificity
Detects human PD-1 in ELISAs and Western blots. In sandwich ELISAs, less than 2% cross-reactivity with recombinant mouse PD‑1 and less than 0.2% cross-reactivity with recombinant human (rh) CD28, rhICOS, and rhCTLA‑4 is observed.
Source
Polyclonal Goat IgG
Purification
Antigen Affinity-purified
Immunogen
Mouse myeloma cell line NS0-derived recombinant human PD-1
Leu25-Gln167
Accession # Q8IX89
Formulation
Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with Trehalose. *Small pack size (SP) is supplied as a 0.2 µm filtered solution in PBS.
Endotoxin Level
<0.10 EU per 1 μg of the antibody by the LAL method.
Label
Unconjugated

Applications

Recommended Concentration
Sample
Western Blot
0.5-2 µg/mL
See below
Flow Cytometry
0.25 µg/106 cells
See below
Immunohistochemistry
5-15 µg/mL
See below
Blockade of Receptor-ligand Interaction
In a functional ELISA, 3-12 µg/mL of this antibody will block 50% of the binding of 500 ng/mL of Recombinant Human B7-H1 Fc Chimera (Catalog # 156-B7) to immobilized Recombinant Human PD-1 Fc Chimera (Catalog # 1086-PD) coated at 1 µg/mL (100 µL/well). At 30 μg/mL, this antibody will block >90% of the binding.
 
CyTOF-ready
Ready to be labeled using established conjugation methods. No BSA or other carrier proteins that could interfere with conjugation.
 

Human PD-1 Sandwich Immunoassay

Recommended Concentration
Reagent
ELISA Capture (Matched Antibody Pair)
0.2-0.8 µg/mL 

Use in combination with:

Detection Reagent: Human PD‑1 Biotinylated Antibody (Catalog # BAF1086)

Standard: Recombinant Human PD-1 Fc Chimera Protein, CF (Catalog # 1086-PD)

Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.

Data Examples

Western Blot Detection of Human PD‑1 by Western Blot. View Larger

Detection of Human PD‑1 by Western Blot. Western blot shows lysate of human thymus tissue. PVDF membrane was probed with 2 µg/mL of Goat Anti-Human PD‑1 Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF1086) followed by HRP-conjugated Anti-Goat IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # HAF017). Specific bands were detected for PD‑1 at approximately 40-50 kDa (as indicated). This experiment was conducted under reducing conditions and using Immunoblot Buffer Group 1.

Western Blot Detection  of Human PD‑1 by Western Blot. View Larger

Detection of Human PD‑1 by Western Blot. Western blot shows lysates of HEK293 human embryonic kidney cell line either mock transfected or transfected with human PD-1. PVDF membrane was probed with 0.5 µg/mL of Goat Anti-Human PD‑1 Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF1086) followed by HRP-conjugated Anti-Goat IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # HAF017). Specific bands were detected for PD‑1 at approximately 40-80 kDa (as indicated). This experiment was conducted under reducing conditions and using Immunoblot Buffer Group 1.

Flow Cytometry Detection of  PD‑1 in Human PBMCs treated with PHA by Flow Cytometry. View Larger

Detection of PD‑1 in Human PBMCs treated with PHA by Flow Cytometry. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) either (A) untreated or (B) treated with 5 μg/mL PHA overnight were stained with Goat Anti-Human PD‑1 Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF1086) followed by Phycoerythrin-conjugated Anti-Goat IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # F0107) and Mouse Anti-Human CD3 epsilon APC‑conjugated Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # FAB100A). Quadrant markers were set based on control antibody staining (Catalog # F0107). View our protocol for Staining Membrane-associated Proteins.

Immunohistochemistry PD‑1 in Human Lymph Node. View Larger

PD‑1 in Human Lymph Node. PD‑1 was detected in immersion fixed paraffin-embedded sections of human lymph node using Goat Anti-Human PD‑1 Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF1086) at 3 µg/mL overnight at 4 °C. Tissue was stained using the Anti-Goat HRP-DAB Cell & Tissue Staining Kit (brown; Catalog # CTS008) and counterstained with hematoxylin (blue). Specific staining was localized to lymphocytes. View our protocol for Chromogenic IHC Staining of Paraffin-embedded Tissue Sections.

Reconstitution Calculator

Reconstitution Calculator

The reconstitution calculator allows you to quickly calculate the volume of a reagent to reconstitute your vial. Simply enter the mass of reagent and the target concentration and the calculator will determine the rest.

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Preparation and Storage

Reconstitution
Reconstitute at 0.2 mg/mL in sterile PBS.
Reconstitution Buffer Available
Reconstitution Buffer 1 (PBS)
Catalog #
Availability
Size / Price
Qty
RB01
Shipping
The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below. *Small pack size (SP) is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at -20 to -70 °C
Stability & Storage
Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.

Background: PD-1

Programmed Death-1 (PD-1) is a type I transmembrane protein belonging to the CD28/CTLA-4 family of immunoreceptors that mediate signals for regulating immune responses (1). Members of the CD28/CTLA-4 family have been shown to either promote T cell activation (CD28 and ICOS) or down-regulate T cell activation (CTLA-4 and PD-1) (2). PD-1 is expressed on activated T cells, B cells, myeloid cells, and on a subset of thymocytes. In vitro, ligation of PD-1 inhibits TCR-mediated T-cell proliferation and production of IL-1, IL-4, IL-10, and IFN-gamma. In addition, PD-1 ligation also inhibits BCR mediated signaling. PD-1 deficient mice have a defect in peripheral tolerance and spontaneously develop autoimmune diseases (2, 3).

Two B7 family proteins, PD-L1 (also called B7-H1) and PD-L2 (also known as B7-DC), have been identified as PD-1 ligands. Unlike other B7 family proteins, both
PD‑L1 and PD-L2 are expressed in a wide variety of normal tissues including heart, placenta, and activated spleens (4). The wide expression of PD-L1 and PD-L2 and the inhibitor effects on PD-1 ligation indicate that PD-1 might be involved in the regulation of peripheral tolerance and may help prevent autoimmune diseases (2).

The human PD-1 gene encodes a 288 amino acid (aa) protein with a putative 20 aa signal peptide, a 148 aa extracellular region with one immunoglobulin-like V-type domain, a 24 aa transmembrane domain, and a 95 aa cytoplasmic region. The cytoplasmic tail contains two tyrosine residues that form the immuno-receptor
tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) and immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motif (ITSM) that are important in mediating PD-1 signaling. Mouse and human PD-1 share approximately 60% aa sequence identity (4).

References
  1. Ishida, Y. et al. (1992) EMBO J. 11:3887.
  2. Nishimura, H. and T. Honjo (2001) Trends in Immunol. 22:265.
  3. Latchman, Y. et al. (2001) Nature Immun. 2:261.
  4. Carreno, B.M. and M. Collins (2002) Annu. Rev. Immunol. 20:29.
Long Name
Programmed Death-1
Entrez Gene IDs
5133 (Human); 18566 (Mouse); 301626 (Rat); 486213 (Canine); 102123659 (Cynomolgus Monkey)
Alternate Names
CD279 antigen; CD279; hPD-1; PD-1; PD1hPD-l; PDCD1; programmed cell death 1; programmed cell death protein 1; Protein PD-1; SLEB2

Product Datasheets

Citations for Human PD-1 Antibody

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

20 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
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  1. Tumor-derived exosomal HMGB1 promotes esophageal squamous cell carcinoma progression through inducing PD1+ TAM expansion
    Authors: B Li, TN Song, FR Wang, C Yin, Z Li, JP Lin, YQ Meng, HM Feng, T Jing
    Oncogenesis, 2019;8(3):17.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  2. Associations of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV)-Specific Follicular CD8+T Cells with Other Follicular T Cells Suggest Complex Contributions to SIV Viremia Control
    Authors: MA Rahman, KM McKinnon, TS Karpova, DA Ball, DJ Venzon, W Fan, G Kang, Q Li, M Robert-Gur
    J. Immunol., 2018;0(0):.
    Species: Primate
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC
  3. Analysis of expression of the PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint system and its prognostic impact in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors
    Authors: M Sampedro-N, A Serrano-So, M Adrados, JM Cameselle-, C Blanco-Car, JM Cabezas-Ag, R Martínez-H, E Martín-Pér, JL Muñoz de N, JÁ Díaz, R García-Cen, J Caneiro-Gó, I Abdulkader, R González-A, M Marazuela
    Sci Rep, 2018;8(1):17812.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC-P
  4. Tumor-derived exosomes induce PD1+ macrophage population in human gastric cancer that promotes disease progression
    Authors: F Wang, B Li, Y Wei, Y Zhao, L Wang, P Zhang, J Yang, W He, H Chen, Z Jiao, Y Li
    Oncogenesis, 2018;7(5):41.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Func
  5. Altered Ratio of T Follicular Helper Cells to T Follicular Regulatory Cells Correlates with Autoreactive Antibody Response in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Rhesus Macaques
    Authors: W Fan, AJ Demers, Y Wan, Q Li
    J. Immunol., 2018;0(0):.
    Species: Primate
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Flow
  6. Increased expression of programmed cell death protein 1 on NK cells inhibits NK-cell-mediated anti-tumor function and indicates poor prognosis in digestive cancers
    Authors: Y Liu, Y Cheng, Y Xu, Z Wang, X Du, C Li, J Peng, L Gao, X Liang, C Ma
    Oncogene, 2017;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Func
  7. Particulate Array of Well-Ordered HIV Clade C Env Trimers Elicits Neutralizing Antibodies that Display a Unique V2 Cap Approach
    Authors: P Martinez-M, K Tran, J Guenaga, G Lindgren, M Àdori, Y Feng, GE Phad, N Vázquez Be, S Bale, J Ingale, V Dubrovskay, S O'Dell, L Pramanik, M Spångberg, M Corcoran, K Loré, JR Mascola, RT Wyatt, GB Karlsson H
    Immunity, 2017;46(5):804-817.e7.
    Species: Primate
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC
  8. Immune Cell Dynamics in Rhesus Macaques Infected with a Brazilian Strain of Zika Virus
    Authors: ELV Silveira, KA Rogers, S Gumber, P Amancha, P Xiao, SM Woollard, SN Byrareddy, MM Teixeira, F Villinger
    J. Immunol., 2017;0(0):.
    Species: Primate - Macaca mulatta (Rhesus Macaque)
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC
  9. Quantitative Multiplexed Imaging Analysis Reveals a Strong Association between Immunogen-Specific B Cell Responses and Tonsillar Germinal Center Immune Dynamics in Children after Influenza Vaccination
    Authors: D Amodio, N Cotugno, G Macchiarul, S Rocca, Y Dimopoulos, MR Castrucci, R De Vito, FM Tucci, AB McDermott, S Narpala, P Rossi, RA Koup, P Palma, C Petrovas
    J. Immunol., 2017;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC
  10. Vaccine Induction of Lymph Node-Resident Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Env-Specific T Follicular Helper Cells in Rhesus Macaques.
    Authors: Vargas-Inchaustegui D, Demers A, Shaw J, Kang G, Ball D, Tuero I, Musich T, Mohanram V, Demberg T, Karpova T, Li Q, Robert-Guroff M
    J Immunol, 2016;196(4):1700-10.
    Species: Primate - Macaca mulatta (Rhesus Macaque)
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC Fluorescence
  11. PD-1 Blockade with Pembrolizumab in Advanced Merkel-Cell Carcinoma
    Authors: PT Nghiem, S Bhatia, EJ Lipson, RR Kudchadkar, NJ Miller, L Annamalai, S Berry, EK Chartash, A Daud, SP Fling, PA Friedlande, HM Kluger, HE Kohrt, L Lundgren, K Margolin, A Mitchell, T Olencki, DM Pardoll, SA Reddy, EM Shantha, WH Sharfman, E Sharon, She
    N Engl J Med, 2016;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC - Paraffin embedded
  12. PD-L1, PD-L2 and PD-1 expression in metastatic melanoma: Correlation with tumor-infiltrating immune cells and clinical outcome
    Authors: Joseph M Obeid
    Oncoimmunology, 2016;5(11):e1235107.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC-P
  13. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells promote HIV-1-induced group 3 innate lymphoid cell depletion.
    Authors: Zhang Z, Cheng L, Zhao J, Li G, Zhang L, Chen W, Nie W, Reszka-Blanco N, Wang F, Su L
    J Clin Invest, 2015;125(9):3692-703.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC Paraffin-embedded
  14. Early lymphoid responses and germinal center formation correlate with lower viral load set points and better prognosis of simian immunodeficiency virus infection.
    Authors: Hong J, Amancha P, Rogers K, Courtney C, Havenar-Daughton C, Crotty S, Ansari A, Villinger F
    J Immunol, 2014;193(2):797-806.
    Species: Primate - Macaca mulatta (Rhesus Macaque)
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IF
  15. Soluble co-signaling molecules predict long-term graft outcome in kidney-transplanted patients.
    Authors: Melendreras S, Martinez-Camblor P, Menendez A, Bravo-Mendoza C, Gonzalez-Vidal A, Coto E, Diaz-Corte C, Ruiz-Ortega M, Lopez-Larrea C, Suarez-Alvarez B
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(12):e113396.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Serum
    Applications: ELISA Development
  16. CD4 T follicular helper cell dynamics during SIV infection.
    J. Clin. Invest., 2012;122(9):3281-94.
    Species: Primate - Macaca mulatta (Rhesus Macaque)
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC Paraffin-embedded
  17. Modulation of T-cell activation by malignant melanoma initiating cells.
    Authors: Schatton T, Schutte U, Frank NY, Zhan Q, Hoerning A, Robles SC, Zhou J, Hodi FS, Spagnoli GC, Murphy GF, Frank MH
    Cancer Res., 2010;70(2):697-708.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IF
  18. Soluble PD-1 rescues the proliferative response of simian immunodeficiency virus-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells during chronic infection.
    Authors: Onlamoon N, Rogers K, Mayne AE, Pattanapanyasat K, Mori K, Villinger F, Ansari AA
    Immunology, 2008;124(2):277-93.
    Species: Primate - Macaca mulatta (Rhesus Macaque)
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Neut
  19. Early resolution of acute immune activation and induction of PD-1 in SIV-infected sooty mangabeys distinguishes nonpathogenic from pathogenic infection in rhesus macaques.
    Authors: Estes JD, Gordon SN, Zeng M, Chahroudi AM, Dunham RM, Staprans SI, Reilly CS, Silvestri G, Haase AT
    J. Immunol., 2008;180(10):6798-807.
    Species: Primate - Cercocebus torquatus (Sooty Mangabey)
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC Paraffin-embedded
  20. Aberrant regulation of synovial T cell activation by soluble costimulatory molecules in rheumatoid arthritis.
    Authors: Wan B, Nie H, Liu A, Feng G, He D, Xu R, Zhang Q, Dong C, Zhang JZ
    J. Immunol., 2006;177(12):8844-50.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Serum
    Applications: ELISA Development

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Human PD-1 Antibody
By Anonymous on 07/23/2018
Application: WB Sample Tested: 293T human embryonic kidney cell line Species: Human

293T cells were infected by lentivirus overexpression of control or PD-1 for 24 and 48 h. Total cell lysates were subjected to western blot. PVDF membrane were probed with 1 um/ml Human PD-1 Antibody (AF1086). A specific band was detected for PD-1 at approximately 43 kDa. This experiment was conducted under reducing conditions


Human PD-1 Antibody
By Anonymous on 03/07/2018
Application: ELISA Sample Tested: Human recombinant antibody Species: Human

Human PD‑1 Antibody
By Anonymous on 11/24/2017
Application: Simple Western Sample Tested: 2120Ep human embryonal carcinoma cell line Species: Human

Human PD-1 Antibody
By Anonymous on 09/29/2017
Application: ELISA Sample Tested: Human recombinant test antibody Species: Human

Human PD-1 Antibody
By Anonymous on 03/14/2017
Application: Flow Sample Tested: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) Species: Human

10^6 Human PBMCs were probed with 0.5 ug of Goat anti-Human PD-1 antibody (red), or Goat Isotype Control IgG (black), followed by PE-conjugated anti-Goat secondary antibody.