Human PD-1 PE-conjugated Antibody Summary
Accession # Q8IX89
Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
Detection of PD‑1 in Human PBMCs treated with PHA by Flow Cytometry. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) either (A) untreated or (B) treated with 5 μg/mL PHA overnight were stained with Goat Anti-Human PD‑1 PE‑conjugated Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # FAB7115P) and Mouse Anti-Human CD3 epsilon APC‑conjugated Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # FAB100A). Quadrant markers were set based on control antibody staining (Catalog # IC108P). View our protocol for Staining Membrane-associated Proteins.
Preparation and Storage
- 12 months from date of receipt, 2 to 8 °C as supplied.
Programmed Death-1 (PD-1) is a type I transmembrane protein belonging to the CD28/CTLA-4 family of immunoreceptors that mediate signals for regulating immune responses (1). Members of the CD28/CTLA-4 family have been shown to either promote T cell activation (CD28 and ICOS) or down-regulate T cell activation (CTLA-4 and PD-1) (2). PD-1 is expressed on activated T cells, B cells, myeloid cells, and on a subset of thymocytes. In vitro, ligation of PD-1 inhibits TCR-mediated T-cell proliferation and production of IL-1, IL-4, IL-10, and IFN-gamma. In addition, PD-1 ligation also inhibits BCR mediated signaling. PD-1 deficient mice have a defect in peripheral tolerance and spontaneously develop autoimmune diseases (2, 3). Two B7 family proteins, PD-L1 (also called B7-H1) and PD-L2 (also known as B7-DC), have been identified as PD-1 ligands. Unlike other B7 family proteins, both PD‑L1 and PD-L2 are expressed in a wide variety of normal tissues including heart, placenta, and activated spleens (4). The wide expression of PD-L1 and PD-L2 and the inhibitor effects on PD-1 ligation indicate that PD-1 might be involved in the regulation of peripheral tolerance and may help prevent autoimmune diseases (2). The human PD-1 gene encodes a 288 amino acid (aa) protein with a putative 20 aa signal peptide, a 148 aa extracellular region with one immunoglobulin-like V-type domain, a 24 aa transmembrane domain, and a 95 aa cytoplasmic region. The cytoplasmic tail contains two tyrosine residues that form the immuno-receptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) and immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motif (ITSM) that are important in mediating PD-1 signaling. Mouse and human PD-1 share approximately 60% aa sequence identity (4).
- Ishida, Y. et al. (1992) EMBO J. 11:3887.
- Nishimura, H. and T. Honjo (2001) Trends in Immunol. 22:265.
- Latchman, Y. et al. (2001) Nature Immun. 2:261.
- Carreno, B.M. and M. Collins (2002) Annu. Rev. Immunol. 20:29.
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