Human VEGF R2/KDR/Flk-1 Antibody

(23 citations)   
  • Species Reactivity
    Human
  • Specificity
    Detects human VEGF R2/KDR/Flk‑1 in direct ELISAs and Western blots. In direct ELISAs, approximately 40% cross-reactivity with recombinant mouse VEGF R2 is observed and less than 10% cross-reactivity with recombinant human (rh) VEGF R1 and rhVEGF R3 is observed.
  • Source
    Polyclonal Goat IgG
  • Purification
    Antigen Affinity-purified
  • Immunogen
    Mouse myeloma cell line NS0-derived recombinant human VEGF R2/KDR/Flk-1
    Ala20-Glu764
    Accession # AAC16450
  • Formulation
    Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with Trehalose. *Small pack size (SP) is supplied as a 0.2 µm filtered solution in PBS.
  • Endotoxin Level
    <0.10 EU per 1 μg of the antibody by the LAL method.
  • Label
    Unconjugated
Applications
  •  
    Recommended
    Concentration
    Sample
  • Western Blot
    1 µg/mL
    See below
  • Immunohistochemistry
    5-15 µg/mL
    See below
  • Neutralization
    Measured by its ability to neutralize VEGF R2/KDR/Flk‑1-mediated inhibition of proliferation in HUVEC human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The Neutralization Dose (ND50) is typically 0.05-0.25 µg/mL in the presence of 30 ng/mL Recombinant Human VEGF R2/KDR/Flk‑1 Fc Chimera and 5 ng/mL Recombinant Human VEGF165.
Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
Data Examples
Detection of Human VEGF R2/KDR/Flk‑1 by Western Blot. Western blot shows lysate of HUVEC human umbilical vein endothelial cells. PVDF membrane was probed with 1 µg/mL of Goat Anti-Human VEGF R2/KDR/Flk‑1 Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF357) followed by HRP-conjugated Anti-Goat IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # HAF017). Specific bands were detected for VEGF R2/KDR/Flk‑1 at approximately
200-250 kDa (as indicated). This experiment was conducted under reducing conditions and using Immunoblot Buffer Group 1.
Immunohistochemistry
VEGF R2/KDR/Flk‑1 in Human Placenta. VEGF R2/KDR/Flk‑1 was detected in immersion fixed paraffin-embedded sections of human placenta using 15 µg/mL Goat Anti-Human VEGF R2/
KDR/Flk‑1 Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF357) overnight at 4 °C. Tissue was stained with the Anti-Goat HRP-AEC Cell & Tissue Staining Kit (red; Catalog # CTS009) and counterstained with hematoxylin (blue). View our protocol for Chromogenic IHC Staining of Paraffin-embedded Tissue Sections.
Immunohistochemistry
VEGF R2/KDR/Flk‑1 in Human Kidney. VEGF R2/KDR/Flk‑1 was detected in immersion fixed paraffin-embedded sections of human kidney using Goat Anti-Human VEGF R2/KDR/Flk‑1 Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF357) at 10 µg/mL overnight at 4 °C. Tissue was stained using the Anti-Goat HRP-DAB Cell & Tissue Staining Kit (brown; Catalog # CTS008) and counterstained with hematoxylin (blue). Lower panel shows a lack of labeling if primary antibodies are omitted and tissue is stained only with secondary antibody followed by incubation with detection reagents. View our protocol for Chromogenic IHC Staining of Paraffin-embedded Tissue Sections.
VEGF R2/KDR/Flk‑1 Inhibi­tion of VEGF-dependent Cell Proliferation and Neutral­ization by Human VEGF R2/KDR/Flk‑1 Anti­body. Recombi­nant Human VEGF R2/KDR/Flk‑1 Fc Chi­mera (Catalog # 357-KD) inhibits Recombinant Human VEGF165 (Catalog # 293-VE) induced proliferation in HUVEC human umbilical vein endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner (orange line). Inhibition of Recombinant Human VEGF165 (5 ng/mL) activity elicited by Recombinant Human VEGF R2/KDR/Flk‑1 Fc Chi­mera (30 ng/mL) is neutralized (green line) by increasing concentrations of Goat Anti-Human VEGF R2/KDR/Flk‑1 Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF357). The ND50 is typically
0.05‑0.25 µg/mL.
Preparation and Storage
  • Reconstitution
    Reconstitute at 0.2 mg/mL in sterile PBS.
  • Shipping
    The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below. *Small pack size (SP) is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at -20 to -70 °C
  • Stability & Storage
    Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
    • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
    • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
    • 6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Background: VEGF R2/KDR/Flk-1

VEGF R2 (KDR/Flk-1), VEGF R1 (Flt-1) and VEGF R3 (Flt-4) belong to the class III subfamily of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). All three receptors contain seven immunoglobulin-like repeats in their extracellular domains and kinase insert domains in their intracellular regions. The expression of VEGF R1, 2, and 3 is almost exclusively restricted to the endothelial cells. These receptors are likely to play essential roles in vasculogenesis and angiogenesis.

VEGF R2 cDNA encodes a 1356 amino acid (aa) residue precursor protein with a 19 aa residue signal peptide. Mature VEGF R2 is composed of a 745 aa residue extracellular domain, a 25 aa residue transmembrane domain and a 567 aa residue cytoplasmic domain. In contrast to VEGF R1 which binds both PlGF and VEGF with high affinity, VEGF R2 binds VEGF but not PlGF with high affinity. The recombinant soluble VEGF R2/Fc chimera binds VEGF with high affinity and is a potent VEGF antagonist.

  • References:
    1. Ferra, N. and R. Davis-Smyth (1997) Endocrine Reviews 18:4.
  • Long Name:
    Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 2
  • Entrez Gene IDs:
    3791 (Human); 16542 (Mouse)
  • Alternate Names:
    CD309 antigen; CD309; EC 2.7.10; EC 2.7.10.1; Fetal liver kinase 1; fetal liver kinase-1; Flk1; Flk-1; FLK1tyrosine kinase growth factor receptor; KDR; kinase insert domain receptor (a type III receptor tyrosine kinase); Kinase insert domain receptor; Protein-tyrosine kinase receptor flk-1; soluble VEGFR2; vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2; VEGF R2; VEGFR; VEGFR2; VEGFR-2
Related Research Areas
Citations:

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

23 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
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Species
Applications
Sample Type
  1. Affimer proteins are versatile and renewable affinity reagents
    Authors: C Tiede, R Bedford, SJ Heseltine, G Smith, I Wijetunga, R Ross, D AlQallaf, AP Roberts, A Balls, A Curd, RE Hughes, H Martin, SR Needham, LC Zanetti-Do, Y Sadigh, TP Peacock, AA Tang, N Gibson, H Kyle, GW Platt, N Ingram, T Taylor, LP Coletta, I Manfield, M Knowles, S Bell, F Esteves, A Maqbool, RK Prasad, M Drinkhill, RS Bon, V Patel, SA Goodchild, M Martin-Fer, RJ Owens, JE Nettleship, ME Webb, M Harrison, JD Lippiat, S Ponnambala, M Peckham, A Smith, PK Ferrigno, M Johnson, MJ McPherson, DC Tomlinson
    Elife, 2017;6(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Cell Lysates
    Application: WB
  2. Lymphatic endothelial progenitors originate from plastic myeloid cells activated by toll-like receptor-4
    Authors: LD Volk-Drape, KL Hall, AC Wilber, S Ran
    PLoS ONE, 2017;12(6):e0179257.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: ICC
  3. Endoglin prevents vascular malformation by regulating flow-induced cell migration and specification through VEGFR2 signalling
    Authors: Y Jin, L Muhl, M Burmakin, Y Wang, AC Duchez, C Betsholtz, HM Arthur, L Jakobsson
    Nat. Cell Biol., 2017;0(0):.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Whole Tissue
    Application: IHC
  4. VEGF induces signalling and angiogenesis by directing VEGFR2 internalisation via macropinocytosis
    J Cell Sci, 2016;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Neut
  5. Endothelial cell adhesion to soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 triggers a cell dynamic and angiogenic phenotype.
    Authors: Orecchia A, Mettouchi A, Uva P, Simon G, Arcelli D, Avitabile S, Ragone G, Meneguzzi G, Pfenninger K, Zambruno G, Failla C
    FASEB J, 2014;28(2):692-704.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Neut
  6. Sustained delivery of VEGF maintains innervation and promotes reperfusion in ischemic skeletal muscles via NGF/GDNF signaling.
    Authors: Shvartsman, Dmitry, Storrie-White, Hannah, Lee, Kangwon, Kearney, Cathal, Brudno, Yevgeny, Ho, Nhi, Cezar, Christin, McCann, Corey, Anderson, Erin, Koullias, John, Tapia, Juan Car, Vandenburgh, Herman, Lichtman, Jeff W, Mooney, David J
    Mol Ther, 2014;22(7):1243-53.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Functional Assay
  7. Differential sensitivity of prostate tumor derived endothelial cells to sorafenib and sunitinib.
    Authors: Fiorio Pla, Alessand, Brossa, Alessia, Bernardini, Michela, Genova, Tullio, Grolez, Guillaum, Villers, Arnaud, Leroy, Xavier, Prevarskaya, Natalia, Gkika, Dimitra, Bussolati, Benedett
    BMC Cancer, 2014;14(0):939.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Cell Lysates
    Application: WB
  8. VEGF-A isoforms differentially regulate ATF-2-dependent VCAM-1 gene expression and endothelial-leukocyte interactions.
    Authors: Fearnley G, Odell A, Latham A, Mughal N, Bruns A, Burgoyne N, Homer-Vanniasinkam S, Zachary I, Hollstein M, Wheatcroft S, Ponnambalam S
    Mol Biol Cell, 2014;25(16):2509-21.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Cell Lysates
    Application: WB
  9. Control of angiogenesis by galectins involves the release of platelet-derived proangiogenic factors.
    Authors: Etulain J, Negrotto S, Tribulatti M, Croci D, Carabelli J, Campetella O, Rabinovich G, Schattner M
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(4):e96402.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Neut
  10. KDR identifies a conserved human and murine hepatic progenitor and instructs early liver development.
    Authors: Goldman O, Han S, Sourisseau M, Dziedzic N, Hamou W, Corneo B, D'Souza S, Sato T, Kotton D, Bissig K, Kalir T, Jacobs A, Evans T, Evans M, Gouon-Evans V
    Cell Stem Cell, 2013;12(6):748-60.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: ICC
  11. Essential role for endocytosis in the growth factor-stimulated activation of ERK1/2 in endothelial cells.
    Authors: Gourlaouen, Morgane, Welti, Jonathan, Vasudev, Naveen S, Reynolds, Andrew R
    J Biol Chem, 2013;288(11):7467-80.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: ICC
  12. MicroRNA-24 suppression of N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase-1 (NDST1) reduces endothelial cell responsiveness to vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA).
    Authors: Kasza Z, Fredlund Fuchs P, Tamm C, Eriksson A, O'Callaghan P, Heindryckx F, Spillmann D, Larsson E, Le Jan S, Eriksson I, Gerwins P, Kjellen L, Kreuger J
    J Biol Chem, 2013;288(36):25956-63.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Cell Lysates
    Application: WB
  13. Differential expression of Vegfr-2 and its soluble form in preeclampsia.
    Authors: Munaut C, Lorquet S, Pequeux C, Coulon C, Le Goarant J, Chantraine F, Noel A, Goffin F, Tsatsaris V, Subtil D, Foidart JM
    PLoS ONE, 2012;7(3):e33475.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Plasma
    Application: WB
  14. Vascular endothelial growth factor drives autocrine epithelial cell proliferation and survival in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis.
    Authors: Lee HS, Myers A, Kim J
    Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med., 2009;180(11):1056-67.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Tissue
    Application: IHC
  15. The Down syndrome critical region gene 1 short variant promoters direct vascular bed-specific gene expression during inflammation in mice.
    Authors: Minami T, Yano K, Miura M, Kobayashi M, Suehiro J, Reid PC, Hamakubo T, Ryeom S, Aird WC, Kodama T
    J. Clin. Invest., 2009;119(8):2257-70.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Neut
  16. Placenta growth factor in diabetic wound healing: altered expression and therapeutic potential.
    Authors: Cianfarani F, Zambruno G, Brogelli L, Sera F, Lacal PM, Pesce M, Capogrossi MC, Failla CM, Napolitano M, Odorisio T
    Am. J. Pathol., 2006;169(4):1167-82.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Cell Lysates
    Application: WB
  17. Enhancement of angiogenic effectors through hypoxia-inducible factor in preterm primate lung in vivo.
    Authors: Asikainen TM, Waleh NS, Schneider BK, Clyman RI, White CW
    Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol., 2006;291(4):L588-95.
    Species: Primate - Baboon
    Sample Type: Tissue Homogenates
    Application: WB
  18. Activation of hypoxia-inducible factors in hyperoxia through prolyl 4-hydroxylase blockade in cells and explants of primate lung.
    Authors: Asikainen TM, Schneider BK, Waleh NS, Clyman RI, Ho WB, Flippin LA, Gunzler V, White CW
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2005;102(29):10212-7.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: ICC
  19. PEDF derived from glial Muller cells: a possible regulator of retinal angiogenesis.
    Authors: Eichler W, Yafai Y, Keller T, Wiedemann P, Reichenbach A
    Exp. Cell Res., 2004;299(1):68-78.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Neut
  20. VEGF164(165) as the pathological isoform: differential leukocyte and endothelial responses through VEGFR1 and VEGFR2.
    Authors: Usui T, Ishida S, Yamashiro K, Kaji Y, Poulaki V, Moore J, Moore T, Amano S, Horikawa Y, Dartt D, Golding M, Shima DT, Adamis AP
    Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 2004;45(2):368-74.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Neut
  21. Malignant mesothelioma growth inhibition by agents that target the VEGF and VEGF-C autocrine loops.
    Authors: Masood R, Kundra A, Zhu S, Xia G, Scalia P, Smith DL, Gill PS
    Int. J. Cancer, 2003;104(5):603-10.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Cell Lysates
    Application: WB
  22. Proangiogenic properties of human myeloma cells: production of angiopoietin-1 and its potential relationship to myeloma-induced angiogenesis.
    Authors: Giuliani N, Colla S, Lazzaretti M, Sala R, Roti G, Mancini C, Bonomini S, Lunghi P, Hojden M, Genestreti G, Svaldi M, Coser P, Fattori PP, Sammarelli G, Gazzola GC, Almici C, Caramatti C, Mangoni L, Rizzoli V
    Blood, 2003;102(2):638-45.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Neut
  23. Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8)-encoded cytokines induce expression of and autocrine signaling by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in HHV-8-infected primary-effusion lymphoma cell lines and mediate VEGF-independent antiapoptotic effects.
    Authors: Okruzhnov Y, Nicholas J
    J. Virol., 2001;75(22):10933-40.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Cell Lysates
    Application: WB
Expand to show all 23 Citations
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