Mouse Gremlin Antibody

(3 citations)   
  • Species Reactivity
    Mouse
  • Specificity
    Detects mouse Gremlin in direct ELISAs. In direct ELISAs, less than 10% cross-reactivity with recombinant human (rh) Gremlin is observed.
  • Source
    Polyclonal Goat IgG
  • Purification
    Antigen Affinity-purified
  • Immunogen
    Mouse myeloma cell line NS0-derived recombinant mouse Gremlin
    Lys25-Asp184
    Accession # O70326
  • Formulation
    Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with Trehalose. *Small pack size (SP) is supplied as a 0.2 µm filtered solution in PBS.
  • Endotoxin Level
    <0.10 EU per 1 μg of the antibody by the LAL method.
  • Label
    Unconjugated
Applications
  •  
    Recommended
    Concentration
    Sample
  • Immunohistochemistry
    5-15 µg/mL
    See below
  • Blockade of Receptor-ligand Interaction
    In a functional ELISA, 1-3 µg/mL of this antibody will block 50% of the binding of 100 ng/mL of Recombinant Human BMP-4 (Catalog # 314-BP) to immobilized Recombinant Mouse Gremlin (Catalog # 956-GR) coated at 5 µg/mL (100 µL/well).
Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
Data Examples
Immunohistochemistry
Gremlin in Embryonic Mouse Ribs. Gremlin was detected in immersion fixed frozen sections of embryonic mouse ribs (15 d.p.c.) using 15 µg/mL Goat Anti-Mouse Gremlin Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF956) overnight at 4 °C. Tissue was stained with the Anti-Goat HRP-DAB Cell & Tissue Staining Kit (brown; Catalog # CTS008) and counterstained with hematoxylin (blue). View our protocol for Chromogenic IHC Staining of Frozen Tissue Sections.
Preparation and Storage
  • Reconstitution
    Reconstitute at 0.2 mg/mL in sterile PBS.
  • Shipping
    The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below. *Small pack size (SP) is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at -20 to -70 °C
  • Stability & Storage
    Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
    • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
    • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
    • 6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Background: Gremlin
Gremlin was identified in a Xenopus expression-cloning screen as a dorsalizing factor that can induce a secondary axis. A rat homolog, called Drm, was identified as a cDNA that was downregulated in v-mos transfected cells. Gremlin/Drm belongs to the DAN family of secreted glycoproteins that are BMP antagonists. Other members of the family include: cerberus, Dante, PRDC, caronte and DAN. DAN family members share a cysteine-rich domain that is structurally related to the cysteine-knot motif found in TGF-beta superfamily ligands. In vitro, Gremlin/Drm binds BMP-4 and BMP-2 indicating that it might interfere with BMP signaling. Gremlin/Drm acts as a BMP-2/4 antagonist in a variety of tissues and developmental processes including: Xenopus animal cap explants, chick limb bud outgrowth and chondrogenesis, murine lung branching morphogenesis, and osteogenic differentiation of mouse myoblasts and bone marrow stromal cells. In addition, expression of Gremlin/Drm has been shown to be downregulated in a wide range of human cancer cell lines. Mouse, human, chick and Xenopus homologs of Gremlin share over 80% amino acid identity. It is likely that various DAN family members and other BMP antagonists including Noggin, Chordin, Follistatin and TSG can selectively antagonize the activities of different subsets of TGF-beta superfamily ligands.
  • References:
    1. Hsu, D.R. et al. (1998) Mol. Cell 1:673.
    2. Merino, R. et al. (1999) Development 126:5515.
    3. Shi, W. et al. (2001) Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. 280:L1030.
    4. Topol, L.Z. et al. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275:8785.
  • Entrez Gene IDs:
    26585 (Human); 23892 (Mouse)
  • Alternate Names:
    Cell proliferation-inducing gene 2 protein; CKTSF1B1gremlin 1, cysteine knot superfamily, homolog; Cysteine knot superfamily 1, BMP antagonist 1gremlin 1, cysteine knot superfamily, homolog (Xenopus laevis); DAN domain family member 2; DAND2; DAND2GREMLIN; Down-regulated in Mos-transformed cells protein; DRM; DRMMGC126660; GREM1; gremlin 1; gremlin 1-like protein; Gremlin; gremlin-1; IHG-2; Increased in high glucose protein 2; increased in high glucose-2; proliferation-inducing gene 2
Related Research Areas
Citations:

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

3 Citations: Showing 1 - 3
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Species
Applications
Sample Type
  1. Tubular overexpression of gremlin induces renal damage susceptibility in mice.
    Authors: Droguett A, Krall P, Burgos M, Valderrama G, Carpio D, Ardiles L, Rodriguez-Diez R, Kerr B, Walz K, Ruiz-Ortega M, Egido J, Mezzano S
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(7):e101879.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: ICC
  2. A concentration-dependent endocytic trap and sink mechanism converts Bmper from an activator to an inhibitor of Bmp signaling.
    Authors: Kelley R, Ren R, Pi X, Wu Y, Moreno I, Willis M, Moser M, Ross M, Podkowa M, Attisano L, Patterson C
    J. Cell Biol., 2009;184(4):597-609.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Cell Lysates
    Application: WB
  3. Bone morphogenic protein antagonist Drm/gremlin is a novel proangiogenic factor.
    Authors: Stabile H, Mitola S, Moroni E, Belleri M, Nicoli S, Coltrini D, Peri F, Pessi A, Orsatti L, Talamo F, Castronovo V, Waltregny D, Cotelli F, Ribatti D, Presta M
    Blood, 2007;109(5):1834-40.
    Species: Bovine
    Sample Type: Cell Lysates
    Application: WB
Cell and Tissue Staining Kits
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Anti-Goat HRP-DAB Cell & Tissue Staining Kit

CTS008 13
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Immunohistochemistry Reagents
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Antigen Retrieval Reagent-Universal

CTS015 10
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Antigen Retrieval Reagent Sampler (50 mL each)

CTS016
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Antigen Retrieval Reagent-Acidic

CTS014
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NorthernLights Guard Mounting Media

NL996
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VCTS022
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VCTS021
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VCTS023
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Isotype Controls
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Normal Goat IgG Control

Ctrl AB-108-C 191  
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Secondary Antibodies
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Goat IgG HRP-conjugated Antibody

WB, Simple Western HAF109 19  
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Goat IgG HRP-conjugated Antibody

WB HAF017 15  
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Goat IgG (H+L) PE-conjugated Antibody

Flow F0107 4  
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Donkey Anti-Goat IgG NorthernLights™ NL557-conjugated Antibody

Flow, IHC, ICC NL001 9
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Donkey Anti-Goat IgG NorthernLights™ NL493-conjugated Antibody

Flow, IHC, ICC NL003 5
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Goat IgG (H+L) APC-conjugated Antibody

Flow F0108 6  
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Goat IgG Horseradish Peroxidase-conjugated Antibody

WB HAF019 6  
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Donkey Anti-Goat IgG Antibody

WB AF109 6
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Donkey Anti-Goat IgG Biotinylated Antibody

WB BAF109 3
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Goat IgG VisUCyte HRP Polymer

IHC VC004  
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Goat IgG (H+L) Fluorescein-conjugated Antibody

Flow F0109 2  
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Donkey Anti-Goat IgG NorthernLights™ NL637-conjugated Antibody

Flow, IHC, ICC NL002
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Rabbit Anti-Goat IgG (H+L) Affinity Purified PAb, X Absorbed

WB, ELISA R-401-C-ABS
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Chicken Anti-Goat IgG Biotinylated Antibody

WB BAF019
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Rabbit Anti-Goat IgG Biotinylated Antibody

WB BAF017
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Donkey Anti-Goat IgG (H+L) PerCP-conjugated Antibody

Flow F0124
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