Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with Trehalose. *Small pack size (SP) is supplied as a 0.2 µm filtered solution in PBS.
<0.10 EU per 1 μg of the antibody by the LAL method.
Blockade of Receptor-ligand Interaction
In a functional ELISA, 1-3 µg/mL of this antibody will block 50% of the binding of 100 ng/mL of Recombinant Human BMP-4 (Catalog # 314-BP) to immobilized Recombinant Mouse Gremlin (Catalog # 956-GR) coated at 5 µg/mL (100 µL/well).
Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
Gremlin in Embryonic Mouse Ribs. Gremlin was detected in immersion fixed frozen sections of embryonic mouse ribs (15 d.p.c.) using 15 µg/mL Goat Anti-Mouse Gremlin Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF956) overnight at 4 °C. Tissue was stained with the Anti-Goat HRP-DAB Cell & Tissue Staining Kit (brown; Catalog # CTS008) and counterstained with hematoxylin (blue). View our protocol for Chromogenic IHC Staining of Frozen Tissue Sections.
Preparation and Storage
Reconstitute at 0.2 mg/mL in sterile PBS.
The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below. *Small pack size (SP) is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at -20 to -70 °C
Stability & Storage
Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Gremlin was identified in a Xenopus expression-cloning screen as a dorsalizing factor that can induce a secondary axis. A rat homolog, called Drm, was identified as a cDNA that was downregulated in v-mos transfected cells. Gremlin/Drm belongs to the DAN family of secreted glycoproteins that are BMP antagonists. Other members of the family include: cerberus, Dante, PRDC, caronte and DAN. DAN family members share a cysteine-rich domain that is structurally related to the cysteine-knot motif found in TGF-beta superfamily ligands. In vitro, Gremlin/Drm binds BMP-4 and BMP-2 indicating that it might interfere with BMP signaling. Gremlin/Drm acts as a BMP-2/4 antagonist in a variety of tissues and developmental processes including: Xenopus animal cap explants, chick limb bud outgrowth and chondrogenesis, murine lung branching morphogenesis, and osteogenic differentiation of mouse myoblasts and bone marrow stromal cells. In addition, expression of Gremlin/Drm has been shown to be downregulated in a wide range of human cancer cell lines. Mouse, human, chick and Xenopus homologs of Gremlin share over 80% amino acid identity. It is likely that various DAN family members and other BMP antagonists including Noggin, Chordin, Follistatin and TSG can selectively antagonize the activities of different subsets of TGF-beta superfamily ligands.
Hsu, D.R. et al. (1998) Mol. Cell 1:673.
Merino, R. et al. (1999) Development 126:5515.
Shi, W. et al. (2001) Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. 280:L1030.
Topol, L.Z. et al. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275:8785.
Entrez Gene IDs:
26585 (Human); 23892 (Mouse)
Cell proliferation-inducing gene 2 protein; CKTSF1B1gremlin 1, cysteine knot superfamily, homolog; Cysteine knot superfamily 1, BMP antagonist 1gremlin 1, cysteine knot superfamily, homolog (Xenopus laevis); DAN domain family member 2; DAND2; DAND2GREMLIN; Down-regulated in Mos-transformed cells protein; DRM; DRMMGC126660; GREM1; gremlin 1; gremlin 1-like protein; gremlin; gremlin-1; IHG-2; Increased in high glucose protein 2; increased in high glucose-2; proliferation-inducing gene 2
R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products.
The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed,
but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.
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