|Cell Proliferation Induced by GM‑CSF and Neutralization by Porcine GM‑CSF Antibody. Recombinant Porcine GM‑CSF (Catalog # 711-PG) stimulates proliferation in the TF‑1 human erythroleukemic cell line in a dose-dependent manner (orange line). Proliferation elicited by Recombinant Porcine GM‑CSF (40 ng/mL) is neutralized (green line) by increasing concentrations of Mouse Anti-Porcine GM‑CSF Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB711). The ND50 is typically 1-4 µg/mL.|
GM-CSF was initially characterized as a factor that can support the in vitro colony formation of granulocyte-macrophage progenitors. It is also a growth factor for erythroid, megakaryocyte, and eosinophil progenitors. GM-CSF is produced by a number of different cell types (including T cells, B cells, macrophages, mast cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and adipocytes) in response to cytokine or inflammatory stimuli. On mature hematopoietic cells, GM-CSF is a survival factor for and activates the effector functions of granulocytes, monocytes/macrophages, and eosinophils (1, 2). GM-CSF promotes a Th1 biased immune response, angiogenesis, allergic inflammation, and the development of autoimmunity (3‑5). It shows clinical effectiveness in ameliorating chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, and GM-CSF transfected tumor cells are utilized as cancer vaccines (6, 7). The 22 kDa glycosylated GM-CSF, similar to IL-3 and IL-5, is a cytokine with a core of four bundled alpha ‑helices (8‑10). Mature porcine GM-CSF shares 61%‑72% amino acid sequence identity with canine, feline, human, and rat GM-CSF and 53% with mouse GM-CSF. GM-CSF exerts its biological effects through a heterodimeric receptor complex composed of GM-CSF R alpha /CD116 and the signal transducing common beta chain (CD131) which is also a component of the high-affinity receptors for IL-3 and IL-5 (11, 12). In addition, GM-CSF binds a naturally occurring soluble form of GM-CSF R alpha (13). The activity of GM-CSF is species specific between human and mouse (14).
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