Recombinant Human EN-RAGE Protein, CF

Catalog # Availability Size / Price Qty
1052-ER-050
Product Details
Citations (2)
FAQs
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Recombinant Human EN-RAGE Protein, CF Summary

Purity
>95%, by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions and visualized by silver stain
Endotoxin Level
<1.0 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.
Activity
Measured by its binding ability in a functional ELISA.

When rhRAGE/Fc Chimera (Catalog # 1145-RG) is coated at 2 μg/mL (100 μL/well), rhS100A12 binds with an apparent KD <30 nM.

This protein also enhances integrin activation on neutrophils as measured by flow cytometric analysis using beta 2 integrin activation reporter antibody mAb 24.

Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application.

Source
E. coli-derived human EN-RAGE/S100A12 protein
Met1-Glu92
Accession #
N-terminal Sequence
Analysis
Met1
Predicted Molecular Mass
10.6 kDa
SDS-PAGE
8 kDa, reducing condtions

Product Datasheets

Carrier Free

What does CF mean?

CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.

What formulation is right for me?

In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.

1052-ER

Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 200 μg/mL in PBS.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
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Reconstitution Calculator

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Background: EN-RAGE/S100A12

EN-RAGE, also known as S100A12 and Calgranulin C, is a 10 kDa member of the S100 (soluble in 100% saturated ammonium sulfate) family of EF-hand calcium-binding proteins. Like other S100 proteins, S100A12 is small and generally acidic (1 - 3). EN-RAGE forms noncovalent homodimers in the absence of divalent cations (4 - 6); calcium and zinc promote the formation of higher order assemblies including tetramers and hexamers (4, 7, 8). The ability of S100A12 to chelate zinc enables it to inhibit the zinc-dependent metalloproteases MMP-2, -3, and -9 (8). S100A12 also forms heterodimers with S100A9 and binds to RAGE (Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-products), Annexin V, and several cytosolic enzymes involved in energy metabolism (9, 10). The hexameric form of EN-RAGE in particular binds RAGE with high affinity (7). EN-RAGE induces a variety of inflammatory responses including the in vivo recruitment of neutrophils, monocytes, and mast cells and the activation of mast cells and vascular endothelial cells (9, 11 - 14). EN-RAGE is found at elevated levels under inflammatory conditions such as asthma, gout, rheumatoid arthritis synovial fluid, and atherosclerosis (8, 12, 14). S100A12 also promotes neurite outgrowth in isolated hippocampal neurons (15). An ortholog of S100A12 has not been identified in rodents, but the human protein is functional in mice and rats (11 - 16).

References
  1. Santamaria-Kisiel, L. et al. (2006) Biochem. J. 396:201.
  2. Leclerc, E. et al. (2009) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1793:993.
  3. Wicki, R. et al. (1996) Cell Calcium 20:459.
  4. Moroz, O.V. et al. (2009) BMC Biochem. 10:11.
  5. Miranda, L.P. et al. (2001) FEBS Lett. 488:85.
  6. Vogl, T. et al. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274:25291.
  7. Xie, J. et al. (2007) J. Biol. Chem. 282:4218.
  8. Goyette, J. et al. (2009) J. Immunol. 183:593.
  9. Hatakeyama, T. et al. (2004) Eur. J. Biochem. 271:3765.
  10. Hofmann, M.A. et al. (1999) Cell 97:889.
  11. Yang, Z. et al. (2001) J. Leukoc. Biol. 69:986.
  12. Rouleau, P. et al. (2003) Clin. Immunol. 107:46.
  13. Yan, W.X. et al. (2008) J. Biol. Chem. 283:13035.
  14. Yang, Z. et al. (2007) J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 119:106.
  15. Mikkelsen, S.E. et al. (2001) J. Neurochem. 79:767.
  16. Fuellen, G. et al. (2004) OMICS 8:334.
Long Name
Extracellular Newly Identified RAGE-binding Protein
Entrez Gene IDs
6283 (Human)
Alternate Names
CAAF1; CAAF1Neutrophil S100 protein; CAAFI; CAGC; CAGCS100 calcium binding protein A12 (calgranulin C); CAGCS100; Calcium-binding protein in amniotic fluid 1; Calgranulin C; calgranulin-C; CGRPEN-RAGE; ENRAGE; EN-RAGE; Extracellular newly identified RAGE-binding protein; MRP6; p6calgranulin C; protein S100-A12; S100 calcium binding protein A12; S100 calcium-binding protein A12 (calgranulin C); S100 calcium-binding protein A12; S100A12

Citations for Recombinant Human EN-RAGE Protein, CF

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

2 Citations: Showing 1 - 2
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  1. IL-22 is induced by S100/calgranulin and impairs cholesterol efflux in macrophages by downregulating ABCG1.
    Authors: Chellan B, Yan L, Sontag T, Reardon C, Hofmann Bowman M
    J Lipid Res, 2014;55(3):443-54.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  2. S100/Calgranulin-mediated inflammation accelerates left ventricular hypertrophy and aortic valve sclerosis in chronic kidney disease in a receptor for advanced glycation end products-dependent manner.
    Authors: Yan L, Mathew L, Chellan B, Gardner B, Earley J, Puri T, Hofmann Bowman M
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol, 2014;34(7):1399-411.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay

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