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Protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs), including transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinases and cytoplasmic nonreceptor tyrosine kinases, play vital roles in a variety of cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, adhesion, motility, death and metabolism. Mutations and dysregulation of PTKs have been implicated in the development of many human diseases, including diabetes and cancer. PTKs mediate signal transduction in eukaryotic cells via phosphorylation of tyrosine residues in substrate proteins.