Cytokine Upregulation of HIV Coreceptors

HIV-1 virus strains use the chemokine receptors, CCR-5, CXCR-4, or both, to enter cells (reviewed in reference 1). Expression of these chemokine receptors may predetermine susceptibility of hematopoietic subsets to HIV-1 infection. Certain cytokines can influence the dynamics of HIV-1 infection by altering chemokine receptor expression levels on hematopoietic cells.

During chronic HIV-1 infection, proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma are secreted in excess.2,3 IFN-gamma increases cell surface expression of CCR-5 by human mononuclear phagocytes4 and of CXCR-4 by primary hematopoietic cells.5 In addition, GM-CSF can decrease6 and IL-10 can increase expression of CCR-5.7 Further research into cytokine-mediated regulation of chemokine receptors may lead to increased understanding of how these receptors affect the pathogenesis of AIDS.


  1. McNicholl, J.M. et al. (1997) Emerg. Infect. Dis. 3:261.
  2. Cohen, O.J. et al. (1997) Immunol. Rev. 159:31.
  3. Fauci, A.S. (1996) Nature 384:529.
  4. Harihan, D. et al. (1999) Blood 93:1137.
  5. Lee, B. et al. (1999) Blood 93:1145.
  6. Di Marzio, P. et al. (1998) AIDS Res. Human Retroviruses 14:129.
  7. Sozzani, S. et al. (1998) J. Exp. Med. 187:439.