Cripto is the founding member of the Epidermal Growth Factor - Cripto-FRL1-Cryptic (EGF-CFC) family of signaling proteins that function in various developmental processes and cancer. Cripto is involved in the formation of germ layers, specification of anterior-posterior and left-right axes, and differentiation of heart muscle. Cripto is overexpressed in many types of cancers and acts as a growth factor for tumors. Genetic evidence from mice and zebrafish points to a role for Cripto as an essential cofactor in Nodal signaling. Cripto and OEP (one-eyed pinhead) mutants display defects in mesoderm induction and heart morphogenesis, similar to phenotypes seen in Nodal mutants.
Catalog # 145-CR
Cryptic was originally identified as a secreted protein that is specifically expressed during mesoderm differentiation. Cryptic, along with Cripto, Xenopus FRL-1 and zebrafish OEP define the EGF-CFC family of signaling proteins that function in cancer and various developmental processes. Cryptic is expressed during gastrulation in the mesoderm and later in the neuroectoderm, marking the prospective floor plate of the neural tube. Genetic evidence from mice and humans points to a role for Cryptic in determining left-right asymmetry. Mutations in the Cryptic gene result in a spectrum of left-right laterality heart, lung and spleen defects. These phenotypes resemble some Nodal mutant alleles suggesting that Cryptic, like Cripto, acts as an essential cofactor for Nodal signaling.
Catalog # 1410-CR
Dickkopf Related Protein 4 (Dkk-4) is a member of the Dkk protein family that includes Dkk-1, -2, -3, and -4. Dkk proteins have distinct patterns of expression in both adult and embryonic tissues. Dkk-1 and Dkk-4 are Wnt antagonists. Wnt signaling regulates many important developmental processes including neural crest differentiation, brain development, kidney morphogenesis, and sex determination. In addition, Wnt signaling has also been implicated in tumor formation.
Catalog # 1269-DK
Fibroblast Growth Factor Binding Protein (FGF-BP) is expressed in various tissues during development, including skin and intestine, and is downregulated in adult animals. Expression of FGF-BP is strongly upregulated in a number of human squamous cell carcinomas and colon carcinoma cell lines where it acts as an angiogenic switch that stimulates tumor angiogenesis and growth.
Catalog # 1413-FB
Secreted Frizzled Related Proteins (sFRPs) have sequence similarity to the Wnt-binding domain of the Frizzled family of transmembrane receptors. sFRP-1 is expressed in embryonic kidney, eye, brain, teeth, salivary gland and small intestine, most often at sites of epithelial-mesenchyme interaction. Expression in the adult is strong in eye, kidney, and heart and also prevalent in brain and lung. sFRP-1 was first characterized as a protein that enhances the sensitivity of cells to apoptotic stimuli and as an antagonist of Wnt signaling in Xenopus embryos. It is also characterized as a tumor suppressor in breast and cervical carcinomas.
Catalog # 1384-SF
Mouse Nope (Neighbor Of Punc E11) belongs to a subgroup of the immunoglobin superfamily that includes Deleted in Colorectal Cancer (DCC) and its Drosophila ortholog Frazzled, members of the UNC5 family in C. elegans and mammals, vertebrate Neogenin, and mouse Punc. Mouse Nope is expressed primarily in embryonic muscle tissues and notochord as well as in regions of the adult nervous system.
Catalog # 1394-NP
SOST is a member of the Cerberus/DAN family of putative BMP antagonists, which include Cerberus, DAN, Gremlin, PRDC, and Caronte. SOST was originally identified as an important regulator of bone homeostasis. Mutations in the SOST gene can cause sclerosteosis and van Buchem disease, bone dysplasia disorders characterized by progressive skeletal overgrowth. Significant levels of SOST expression are detected in bone, cartilage, kidney, and liver. SOST is expressed by osteoclasts in developing bones of mouse embryos, including both intramembranously forming skull bones and endochondrally forming long bones. SOST plays a physiological role as a negative regulator of bone formation by repressing BMP-induced osteogenesis. SOST has been shown to have unique ligand specificity, binding BMP-5, -6, and -7 with high affinity and BMP-2 and -4 with low affinity.
Catalog # 1406-ST