M. Anderson, G. Hickey, I. O’Brien, P. Younge, J. David, L. Leong
Public awareness of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) has been increasing due to its appearance in vast array of groups including children, military personnel, and the elderly. This has created a need for the early detection of circulating biomarkers that reflect a traumatized state. Neuronal injury typically stimulates the release of proinflammatory mediators that induce a neuroinflammatory response. It is thought that this response is beneficial as it lays the groundwork for subsequent tissue repair and restoration. A prolonged, unregulated release of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, though, has the potential to damage uninvolved neurons and compromise brain function. The ability to distinguish between short-term and prolonged, or long-term, inflammation is thus desirable, particularly when using a marginally-invasive method that utilizes serum or plasma. The study presented here evaluated several neuroinflammatory markers including; Chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1), CXCL8/IL-8, CXCL10/IP-10, ICAM-1/CD54, IL-1 beta/IL-1F2, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-alpha. The Simple Plex™ (ProteinSimple) assay employed is a novel, quantitative, multianalyte immunoassay platform that delivers high precision and accuracy while using < 25 μL of sample. This platform measures up to four analytes simultaneously from a single, small sample with very high sensitivity. The microfluidic-based system allows parallel single analyte detection and reduces the non-specific antibody interactions often observed in other traditional multiplex platforms. The assay is also a closed system and the whole process is automated within a single cartridge, thus removing potential user variability. Furthermore, results are generated in just over one hour. Our studies suggest this platform may represent a highly efficient method for the detection of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines following TBI.