BMP-10 is a homodimeric TGF-beta superfamily cytokine that signals through heterodimeric complexes of type I and type II BMP receptors. BMP-10 is critical for the proper development of the heart but is not expressed until after cardiac patterning or looping are completed. It is required for maintaining expression of the cardiogenic transcription factors NKX2.5 and MEF2C in developing myocardium and promoting the growth of embryonic cardiomyocytes. BMP-10 in the postnatal heart promotes increased cardiomyocyte and heart size. Deletion of BMPR-IA or BMP-10 causes similar cardiac morphogenetic abnormalities.