CCL3/MIP-1 alpha, is a beta chemokine that can be induced in a variety of hematopoietic cells, fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, and epithelial cells. It forms complexes with sulfated proteoglycans and also associates into noncovalently-linked dimers and high molecular weight polymers. These complexes of CCL3 are protected from proteolytic digestion by insulin degrading enzyme (IDE) which can cleave the monomeric chemokine. CCL3 signals through CCR1, CCR3, and CCR5, and it is internalized by the decoy chemokine receptor D6. CCL3 promotes the chemoattraction, adhesion to activated vascular endothelium, and cellular activation of many hematopoietic cell types. It can promote tumor metastasis, hyperalgesia, and inflammation and suppress HIV replication and hematopoietic stem cell proliferation.