GDF-3 (Growth Differentiation Factor-3; Vgr-2) is a TGF-beta superfamily member that is expressed in undifferentiated embryonic stem (ES) cells, white adipose tissue, and the brain. GDF-3 is upregulated in adipocytes by a high fat diet, promoting adipogenesis and obesity. Both proGDF-3 and mature GDF-3 lacking the propeptide can oppose BMP activity. Inhibition of BMP-2 signaling by GDF-3 supports the pluripotency of ES cells. During embryogenesis, GDF-3 cooperates with GDF-1, plays a role in anterior visceral endoderm development. GDF-3 signals through the receptors Activin RIB/ALK-4 and ALK-7.