Serine/Threonine Protein Kinases N1 and N2 are PKC family members that are downstream effectors of RhoA. Both promote the activation of several kinases involved in regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, cell cycle, and apoptosis. PKN1 can be activated by proteolysis, lipid interaction, or Rho G proteins. PKN2 cleavage during apoptosis generates a C-terminal fragment that inhibits PDK1 and Akt. PKN2 is also important in the intracellular replication of hepatitis C virus and Yersinia pestis.