Thrombopoietin (Tpo), is a key regulator of megakaryocytopoiesis and thrombopoiesis. It is principally produced in the liver and is bound and internalized by the receptor Tpo R/c-mpl. Defects in the Tpo-Tpo R signaling pathway are associated with a variety of platelet disorders. Tpo promotes the differentiation, proliferation, and maturation of megakaryocytes and their progenitors. Tpo additionally promotes platelet production, aggregation, ECM adhesion, and activation. Aside from its hematopoietic effects, Tpo is expressed in the brain where it promotes the apoptosis of hypoxia-sensitized neurons and inhibits neuronal differentiation by blocking NGF-induced signaling.