Vesicular Glutamate Transporter 1 (VGLUT1), also known as SLC17A7, is an integral membrane protein involved in glutamate uptake into synaptic vesicles. Human VGLUT1/SLC17A7 is a 560 amino acid (aa) 12-transmembrance protein with a predicted molecular weight of approximately 61 kDa. It shares 98% aa sequence identity with the mouse and rat orthologs. VGLUT1/SLC17A7 is expressed in pre-synaptic vesicles and mediates the accumulation of neurotransmitter (glutamate) into synaptic vesicles. It is an essential molecular component of glutamate synaptic transmission, and its de-regulation can result in synaptic failure and excitotoxicity. VGLUT proteins appear to be differentially expressed in myelinated afferents located in specific axonal populations within the spinal cord. These proteins are among the most specific markers for the identification of glutamatergic neurons.