Members of the IL-12 cytokine family (IL-12, IL-23, IL-27, IL-35, and IL-39) are heterodimeric proteins that play a central role in regulating immune cell functions and inflammation. IL-39 is a recently identified member of this family that consists of the IL-23 p19 subunit paired with the Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 3 (EBI3) subunit. Although little is currently known about IL-39, it has been shown to induce the differentiation or expansion of neutrophils in lupus‐prone mice and to stimulate the secretion of B cell activation factor (BAFF) by these cells. As a result, it has been suggested that IL-39 may be an important pro-inflammatory cytokine and a potential therapeutic target for autoimmune diseases.
IL-Y is a putative IL-12 family member consisting of the IL-12 p40 and IL-27 p28 subunits, that has been generated synthetically, but has yet to be found naturally. Initial studies on IL-Y demonstrate that it inhibits the differentiation and inflammatory responses of Th1 and Th17 cells. In tumor-bearing mice, IL-Y was found to suppress anti-tumor immune responses. Additionally, it was shown to prevent the onset of hyperglycemia and reduce the expression of inflammatory mediators such as IFN-gamma in prediabetic non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, suggesting that it may have therapeutic applications in the treatment of chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.
IL-39 and IL-Y Exhibit Pro-and Anti-Inflammatory Activities Respectively. (A) Mouse splenocytes were treated with increasing concentrations of Recombinant Human IL-39 Fc Chimera (Catalog # 9990-IL) and (B) IL-12-induced mouse splenocytes were treated with increasing concentrations of Recombinant Mouse IL-Y (Catalog # 9989-IL). IFN-gamma production was measured in both experiments in cell culture supernatants using the Mouse IFN-gamma Quantikine® ELISA Kit (Catalog # MIF00).