Recombinant Human Exostosin 1 Protein, CF

Catalog # Availability Size / Price Qty
8379-GT-010
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Recombinant Human Exostosin 1 Protein, CF Summary

Purity
>90%, by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions and visualized by Colloidal Coomassie® Blue stain at 5 μg per lane
Endotoxin Level
<1.0 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.
Activity
Measured by its ability to transfer GlcNAc and GlcA from donor substrates to heparan sulfate. The specific activity is >300 pmol/min/μg, as measured under the described conditions.
Source
Chinese Hamster Ovary cell line, CHO-derived human Exostosin 1 protein
Asp69-Leu746 with a C-terminal 6-His tag
Accession #
N-terminal Sequence
Analysis
Asp69 & Leu71
Predicted Molecular Mass
79 kDa
SDS-PAGE
65-84 kDa, reducing conditions

Product Datasheets

8379-GT

Formulation Supplied as a 0.2 μm filtered solution in Tris, NaCl and Glycerol.
Shipping The product is shipped with dry ice or equivalent. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 6 months from date of receipt, -70 °C as supplied.
  • 3 months, -70 °C under sterile conditions after opening.

Assay Procedure

Materials
  • Assay Buffer: 25 mM Tris, 150 mM NaCl, 5 mM CaCl2,  5 mM MnCl2, pH 7.5
  • Recombinant human EXT1 (rhEXT1) (Catalog # 8379-GT)
  • UDP-GlcA (Sigma, Catalog # U5625), 10 mM stock in deionized water
  • UDP-GlcNAc (Sigma, Catalog # U4375), 50 mM stock in 50% ethanol/50% deionized water
  • Heparan Sulfate (Celsus Labs, Catalog # HO-03102 or HO-3105), 50 mg/mL stock in deionized water
  • Glycosyltransferase Activity Kit (Catalog # EA001)
  • 96-well Clear Plate (Costar, Catalog # 92592)
  • Plate Reader (Model: SpectraMax Plus by Molecular Devices) or equivalent
  1. Dilute 1 mM Phosphate Standard by adding 40 µL of the 1 mM Phosphate Standard to 360 µL of Assay Buffer for a 100 µM stock. This is the first point of the standard curve.
  2. Continue standard curve by performing six one-half serial dilutions of the 100 µM Phosphate stock in Assay Buffer. The standard curve has a range of 0.078 to 5.0 nmol per well.
  3. Load 50 µL of each dilution of the standard curve into a plate. Include a curve blank containing 50 μL of Assay Buffer.
  4. Prepare a Reaction Mixture composed of 1 mM UDP-GlcA, 1 mM UDP-GlcNAc, 8 mg/mL Heparan Sulfate, and 4 µg/mL Coupling Phosphatase 1 in Assay Buffer.
  5. Dilute rhEXT1 to 4 µg/mL in Assay Buffer.
  6. Load 25 µL of the 4 µg/mL rhEXT1 into the plate. Include a Substrate Blank containing 25 µL of Assay Buffer.
  7. Start the reaction by adding 25 µL of Reaction Mixture to the wells, excluding the standard curve and curve blank.
  8. Cover the plate with a plate sealer and incubate at 37 °C for 20 minutes.
  9. Add 30 µL of the Malachite Green Reagent A to all wells. Mix briefly.
  10. Add 100 µL of deionized water to all wells. Mix briefly.
  11. Add 30 µL of the Malachite Green Reagent B to all wells. Mix and incubate for 20 minutes at room temperature.
  12. Read plate at 620 nm (absorbance) in endpoint mode.
  13. Calculate specific activity:

     Specific Activity (pmol/min/µg) =

Phosphate released* (nmol) x (1000 pmol/nmol)
Incubation time (min) x amount of enzyme (µg)

     *Derived from the phosphate standard curve using linear or 4-parameter fitting and adjusted for Control.

Per Reaction:
  • rhEXT1: 0.1 µg
  • UDP-GlcA: 0.5 mM
  • UDP-GlcNAc: 0.5 mM
  • Heparan Sulfate: 200 µg
  • Coupling Phosphatase 1: 0.1 µg
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    Background: Exostosin 1

    The exostosin (EXT) family of glycosyltransferases are involved in heparan sulfate (HS) and heparin biosynthesis (1). Mutations of these enzymes are the causes of hereditary multiple exostoses, which are characterized by formation of numerous cartilage-capped, benign bone tumors (osteocartilaginous exostoses or osteochondromas) that are often accompanied by skeletal deformities and short stature (2). In a small percentage of cases exostoses have exhibited malignant transformation resulting in an osteosarcoma or chondrosarcoma (3). Five members of this family have been cloned to date: EXT1, EXT2, EXTL1, EXTL2, and EXTL3. EXT1 and EXT2 are bifunctional enzymes with both beta -1,4-glucuronyltransferase and alpha -1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase activities that add alternating beta -1,4-GlcA and alpha -1,4-GlcNAc residues on the non-reducing end of HS chain (4). EXT1 is an active enzyme, but the hetero-dimer of EXT1 and EXT2 is more stable and has higher activity (1). The enzyme activity of recombinant human EXT1 is measured using a phosphatase-coupled assay (5).

    References
    1. Busse, M. et al. (2007) J. Biol. Chem. 282:32802.
    2. Wuyts, W. et al. (1998) Am. J. Hum. Genet. 62:346.
    3. Hecht J.T. et al. (1997) Am. J. Hum. Genet. 60:80.
    4. Kobayashi S. et al. (2000) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 268:860.
    5. Wu, Z.L. et al. (2011) Glycobiology 21:727.
    Long Name
    Exostosin Glycosyltransferase 1
    Entrez Gene IDs
    2131 (Human); 14042 (Mouse); 299907 (Rat)
    Alternate Names
    EC 2.4.1.224; EC 2.4.1.225; exostoses (multiple) 1; Exostosin 1; exostosin-1; EXT; EXT1; Glucuronosyl-N-acetylglucosaminyl-proteoglycan 4-alpha-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; Glucuronosyl-N-acetylglucosaminyl-proteoglycan/N-acetylglucosaminyl-proteoglycan4-alpha-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; Langer-Giedion syndrome chromosome region; LGCR; LGS; Multiple exostoses protein 1; N-acetylglucosaminyl-proteoglycan 4-beta-glucuronosyltransferase; Putative tumor suppressor protein EXT1; TRPS2; TTV

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