Chemical Name: 2(E)-Butenedioic acid 1,4-dimethyl ester
Biological ActivityNuclear factor (erythroid-derived)-like 2 (Nrf2) pathway activator; induces upregulation of antioxidant gene expression. Displays cytoprotective effects in human spinal cord astrocytes, oligodendrocyte precursor cells and hippocampal neurons following hydrogen peroxide challenge. Exerts neuroprotective effects in vivo in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Primary metabolite (MMF, Cat. No. 4511) available.
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Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only, unless stated otherwise.
Fumarates promote cytoprotection of central nervous system cells against oxidative stress via the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived)-like 2 pathway.
Scannevin et al.
Fumaric acid esters exert neuroprotective effects in neuroinflammation via activation of the Nrf2 antioxidant pathway.
Linker et al.
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used at 10um in mouse macrophages to activate NRF2