R&D Systems offers a wide selection of reagents for studying apoptosis including antibodies, active proteins, ELISAs, and activity assays for apoptosis-related molecules. We also offer kits to assess cellular events associated with apoptosis including Tunel Assays, Annexin Kits, Viability Assays, Comet Assays, DNA Laddering Kits, and more.
Apoptosis is the process of programmed cell death. It plays critical roles in development and immunity, as well as cancer and neurodegenerative disease. Apoptosis is accompanied by complex cascades of intracellular events that may include the activation of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members, members of the Caspase family, and several nucleases. This leads to characteristic cellular changes including transfer of phosphatidylserine to the outer leaflet, chromatin condensation and DNA degradation, membrane blebbing, and ultimately the formation of apoptotic bodies that can be efficiently cleared by phagocytes. Apoptosis can be initiated via several mechanisms including trophic factor withdrawal, ligation of pro-apoptotic transmembrane receptors, or the activities of cytotoxic immune cells.