hh DNQX (CAS 2379-57-9): R&D Systems
Catalog Number: 0189
Chemical Name: 6,7-Dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione
Biological Activity
Selective non-NMDA receptor antagonist.

Water-soluble Salt also available.

Technical Data
  • M.Wt:
    252.14
  • Formula:
    C8H4N4O6
  • Solubility:
    Soluble to 100 mM in DMSO
  • Purity:
    >98%
  • Storage:
    Store at RT
  • CAS No:
    2379-57-9
The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis. All Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only.
Additional Information
Other Product-Specific Information:
Background References
  1. Quinoxalinediones: potent competitive non-NMDA glutamate receptor antagonists.
    Honore et al.
    Science, 1988;241:701
  2. Structure-activity relationships in the development of excitatory amino acid receptor agonists and competitive antagonists.
    Watkins et al.
    TiPS, 1990;11:25
Citations:

The citations listed below are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for DNQX include:

76 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
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  1. Molecular components and functions of the endocannabinoid system in mouse prefrontal cortex.
    Authors: Lafourcade Et al.
    PLoS One ;2:e709
  2. Fixed single-cell transcriptomic characterization of human radial glial diversity.
    Authors: Thomsen Et al.
    Nat Methods 2016;13:87
  3. GABAA receptor activity shapes the formation of inhibitory synapses between developing medium spiny neurons.
    Authors: Arama Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci 2015;9:290
  4. High salt intake increases blood pressure via BDNF-mediated downregulation of KCC2 and impaired baroreflex inhibition of vasopressin neurons.
    Authors: Choe Et al.
    Neuron 2015;85:549
  5. IL-1 interacts with ethanol effects on GABAergic transmission in the mouse central amygdala.
    Authors: Bajo Et al.
    Front Pharmacol 2015;6:49
  6. Neuron-glia signaling in developing retina mediated by neurotransmitter spillover.
    Authors: Rosa Et al.
    Elife 2015;4
  7. An Asymmetric Increase in Inhibitory Synapse Number Underlies the Development of a Direction Selective Circuit in the Retina.
    Authors: Morrie and Feller
    J Neurosci 2015;35:9281
  8. PAR1-activated astrocytes in the nucleus of the solitary tract stimulate adjacent neurons via NMDA receptors.
    Authors: Vance Et al.
    J Neurosci 2015;35:776
  9. Abnormal excitability and episodic low-frequency oscillations in the cerebral cortex of the tottering mouse.
    Authors: Cramer Et al.
    J Neurosci 2015;35:5664
  10. Osmoregulation requires brain expression of the renal Na-K-2Cl cotransporter NKCC2.
    Authors: Konopacka Et al.
    J Neurosci 2015;35:5144
  11. Morphological and physiological evidence of a synaptic connection between the lateral parabrachial nucleus and neurons in the A7 catecholamine cell group in rats.
    Authors: Liu Et al.
    J Biomed Sci 2015;22:79
  12. Deletion of aquaporin-4 increases extracellular K(+) concentration during synaptic stimulation in mouse hippocampus.
    Authors: Haj-Yasein Et al.
    Brain Struct Funct 2015;220:2469
  13. Early depolarizing GABA controls critical-period plasticity in the rat visual cortex.
    Authors: Deidda Et al.
    Nat Neurosci 2015;18:87
  14. The rat retina has five types of ganglion-cell photoreceptors.
    Authors: Reifler Et al.
    Exp Eye Res 2015;130:17
  15. Intrinsic excitability varies by sex in prepubertal striatal medium spiny neurons.
    Authors: Dorris Et al.
    J Neurophysiol 2015;113:720
  16. Advantages and limitations of the use of optogenetic approach in studying fast-scale spike encoding.
    Authors: Malyshev Et al.
    PLoS One 2015;10:e0122286
  17. Kinetic evaluation of photosensitivity in bi-stable variants of chimeric channelrhodopsins.
    Authors: Hososhima Et al.
    PLoS One 2015;10:e0119558
  18. Type I intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells of early post-natal development correspond to the M4 subtype.
    Authors: Sexton Et al.
    Neural Dev 2015;10:17
  19. Neonatal NMDA receptor blockade disrupts spike timing and glutamatergic synapses in fast spiking interneurons in a NMDA receptor hypofunction model of schizophrenia.
    Authors: Jones Et al.
    PLoS One 2014;9:e109303
  20. Inhibitory projections from the ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body to the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body in the mouse.
    Authors: Albrecht Et al.
    Front Neural Circuits 2014;8:83
  21. Electrophysiological characterization of granule cells in the dentate gyrus immediately after birth.
    Authors: Pedroni Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci 2014;8:44
  22. Synapse elimination and learning rules co-regulated by MHC class I H2-Db.
    Authors: Lee Et al.
    Nature 2014;509:195
  23. Fast and efficient neural conversion of human hematopoietic cells.
    Authors: Castaño Et al.
    Stem Cell Reports 2014;3:1118
  24. Mutant β-III spectrin causes mGluR1α mislocalization and functional deficits in a mouse model of spinocerebellar ataxia type 5.
    Authors: Armbrust Et al.
    J Neurosci 2014;34:9891
  25. Phasic, nonsynaptic GABA-A receptor-mediated inhibition entrains thalamocortical oscillations.
    Authors: Rovó Et al.
    J Neurosci 2014;34:7137
  26. Vortioxetine disinhibits pyramidal cell function and enhances synaptic plasticity in the rat hippocampus.
    Authors: Dale Et al.
    J Psychopharmacol 2014;28:891
  27. Munc18-1 redistributes in nerve terminals in an activity- and PKC-dependent manner.
    Authors: Cijsouw Et al.
    J Cell Biol 2014;204:759
  28. Cav1.3 channels control D2-autoreceptor responses via NCS-1 in substantia nigra dopamine neurons.
    Authors: Dragicevic Et al.
    Brain 2014;137:2287
  29. An auditory colliculothalamocortical brain slice preparation in mouse.
    Authors: Llano Et al.
    J Neurophysiol 2014;111:197
  30. Characterization of corticotropin-releasing hormone neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus of Crh-IRES-Cre mutant mice.
    Authors: Cusulin Et al.
    PLoS One 2013;8:e64943
  31. Low voltage activation of KCa1.1 current by Cav3-KCa1.1 complexes.
    Authors: Rehak Et al.
    PLoS One 2013;8:e61844
  32. A conformational intermediate in glutamate receptor activation.
    Authors: Lau Et al.
    Neuron 2013;79:492
  33. Social stress alters inhibitory synaptic input to distinct subpopulations of raphe serotonin neurons.
    Authors: Crawford Et al.
    ACS Chem Neurosci 2013;4:200
  34. Ghrelin increases GABAergic transmission and interacts with ethanol actions in the rat central nucleus of the amygdala.
    Authors: Cruz Et al.
    Neuropsychopharmacology 2013;38:364
  35. GABA(A) receptors can initiate the formation of functional inhibitory GABAergic synapses.
    Authors: Fuchs Et al.
    Eur J Neurosci 2013;38:3146
  36. Development of the corticothalamic projections.
    Authors: Grant Et al.
    Front Neurosci 2012;6:53
  37. Dopaminergic modulation of ganglion-cell photoreceptors in rat.
    Authors: Hook Et al.
    Eur J Neurosci 2012;35:507
  38. GABA is excitatory in adult vasopressinergic neuroendocrine cells.
    Authors: Haam Et al.
    J Neurosci 2012;32:572
  39. Ventral tegmental area glutamate neurons: electrophysiological properties and projections.
    Authors: Hnasko Et al.
    J Neurosci 2012;32:15076
  40. Activity-dependent phosphorylation of GABAA receptors regulates receptor insertion and tonic current.
    Authors: Saliba Et al.
    EMBO J 2012;31:2937
  41. Munc13 controls the location and efficiency of dense-core vesicle release in neurons.
    Authors: Bospoort Et al.
    J Cell Biol 2012;199:883
  42. Receptor subtype-dependent galanin actions on gamma-aminobutyric acidergic neurotransmission and ethanol responses in the central amygdala.
    Authors: Bajo Et al.
    Addict Biol 2012;17:694
  43. Intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channels modulate summation of parallel fiber input in cerebellar Purkinje cells.
    Authors: Engbers Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2012;109:2601
  44. Endocannabinoids gate state-dependent plasticity of synaptic inhibition in feeding circuits.
    Authors: Crosby Et al.
    Neuron 2011;71:529
  45. Determinants of functional coupling between astrocytes and respiratory neurons in the pre-Bötzinger complex.
    Authors: Schnell Et al.
    PLoS One 2011;6:e26309
  46. GABAergic signalling in a neurogenic niche of the turtle spinal cord.
    Authors: Reali Et al.
    J Physiol 2011;589:5633
  47. Structure and function of bistratified intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells in the mouse.
    Authors: Schmidt and Kofuji
    J Comp Neurol 2011;519:1492
  48. Neto1 is an auxiliary subunit of native synaptic kainate receptors.
    Authors: Tang Et al.
    J Neurosci 2011;31:10009
  49. Regulation of synaptic stability by AMPA receptor reverse signaling.
    Authors: Ripley Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2011;108:367
  50. Defective GABAergic neurotransmission and pharmacological rescue of neuronal hyperexcitability in the amygdala in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome.
    Authors: Olmos-Serrano Et al.
    J Neurosci 2010;30:9929
  51. Ubiquitination acutely regulates presynaptic neurotransmitter release in mammalian neurons.
    Authors: Rinetti and Schweizer
    J Neurosci 2010;30:3157
  52. Control of CA3 output by feedforward inhibition despite developmental changes in the excitation-inhibition balance.
    Authors: Torborg Et al.
    J Neurosci 2010;30:15628
  53. Light-evoked NMDA receptor-mediated currents are reduced by blocking D-serine synthesis in the salamander retina.
    Authors: Stevens Et al.
    Neuroreport 2010;21:239
  54. Glutamate-induced NFκB activation in the retina.
    Authors: Fan and Cooper
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2009;50:917
  55. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor- and metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent long-term depression are differentially regulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system.
    Authors: Citri Et al.
    Eur J Neurosci 2009;30:1443
  56. Functional and morphological differences among intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells.
    Authors: Schmidt and Kofuji
    J Neurosci 2009;29:476
  57. Cytoskeletal changes underlie estrogen's acute effects on synaptic transmission and plasticity.
    Authors: Kramár Et al.
    J Neurosci 2009;29:12982
  58. Rapid and sensitive mapping of long-range connections in vitro using flavoprotein autofluorescence imaging combined with laser photostimulation.
    Authors: Llano Et al.
    J Neurophysiol 2009;101:3325
  59. Neuropeptide S-mediated control of fear expression and extinction: role of intercalated GABAergic neurons in the amygdala.
    Authors: Jüngling Et al.
    Neuron 2008;59:298
  60. Deficits in phosphorylation of GABA(A) receptors by intimately associated protein kinase C activity underlie compromised synaptic inhibition during status epilepticus.
    Authors: Terunuma Et al.
    J Neurosci 2008;28:376
  61. Blockade of cochlear NMDA receptors prevents long-term tinnitus during a brief consolidation window after acoustic trauma.
    Authors: Guitton and Dudai
    Neural Plast 2008;2007:80904
  62. A quantitative assessment of glutamate uptake into hippocampal synaptic terminals and astrocytes: new insights into a neuronal role for excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2).
    Authors: Furness Et al.
    Neuroscience 2008;157:80
  63. Endocytosis and recycling of AMPA receptors lacking GluR2/3.
    Authors: Biou Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2008;105:1038
  64. Tonically active inhibition selectively controls feedforward circuits in mouse barrel cortex.
    Authors: Krook-Magnuson Et al.
    J Neurophysiol 2008;100:932
  65. Ionic factors governing rebound burst phenotype in rat deep cerebellar neurons.
    Authors: Molineux Et al.
    J Neurophysiol 2008;100:2684
  66. Changes in synaptic morphology accompany actin signaling during LTP.
    Authors: Chen Et al.
    J Neurosci 2007;27:5363
  67. Glutamate receptor expression and chronic glutamate toxicity in rat motor cortex.
    Authors: Young Et al.
    Neurobiol Dis 2007;26:78
  68. Amyloid precursor protein overexpression depresses excitatory transmission through both presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms.
    Authors: Ting Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2007;104:353
  69. Tumor necrosis factor α stimulates NMDA receptor activity in mouse cortical neurons resulting in ERK-dependent death.
    Authors: Jara Et al.
    J Neurochem 2007;100:1407
  70. Regulation of thalamocortical patterning and synaptic maturation by NeuroD2.
    Authors: Ince-Dunn Et al.
    Neuron 2006;49:683
  71. Altered balance of glutamatergic/GABAergic synaptic input and associated changes in dendrite morphology after BDNF expression in BDNF-deficient hippocampal neurons.
    Authors: Singh Et al.
    J Neurosci 2006;26:7189
  72. Insufficient sleep reversibly alters bidirectional synaptic plasticity and NMDA receptor function.
    Authors: Kopp Et al.
    J Neurosci 2006;26:12456
  73. Synaptic inputs to retinal ganglion cells that set the circadian clock.
    Authors: Perez-Leon Et al.
    Eur J Neurosci 2006;24:1117
  74. D-serine is the dominant endogenous coagonist for NMDA receptor neurotoxicity in organotypic hippocampal slices.
    Authors: Shleper Et al.
    J Neurosci 2005;25:9413
  75. Signaling microdomains regulate inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-mediated intracellular calcium transients in cultured neurons.
    Authors: Jacob Et al.
    J Neurosci 2005;25:2853
  76. Bidirectional synaptic plasticity in the cerebellum-like mammalian dorsal cochlear nucleus.
    Authors: Fujino and Oertel
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2003;100:265
Expand to show all 76 Citations
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