Catalog Number: 0189
Chemical Name: 6,7-Dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione
Biological Activity
Selective non-NMDA receptor antagonist. DNQX disodium salt (Cat. No. 2312) also available.
Technical Data
  • M.Wt:
  • Formula:
  • Solubility:
    Soluble to 100 mM in DMSO
  • Purity:
  • Storage:
    Store at RT
  • CAS No:
The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis. All Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only.
Additional Information
Other Product-Specific Information:
Background References
  1. Quinoxalinediones: potent competitive non-NMDA glutamate receptor antagonists.
    Honore et al.
    Science, 1988;241:701
  2. Structure-activity relationships in the development of excitatory amino acid receptor agonists and competitive antagonists.
    Watkins et al.
    TiPS, 1990;11:25

The citations listed below are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for DNQX include:

Showing Results 1 - 10 of 76

  1. Fixed single-cell transcriptomic characterization of human radial glial diversity.
    Authors: Thomsen Et al.
    Nat Methods
  2. GABAA receptor activity shapes the formation of inhibitory synapses between developing medium spiny neurons.
    Authors: Arama Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci
  3. High salt intake increases blood pressure via BDNF-mediated downregulation of KCC2 and impaired baroreflex inhibition of vasopressin neurons.
    Authors: Choe Et al.
  4. IL-1 interacts with ethanol effects on GABAergic transmission in the mouse central amygdala.
    Authors: Bajo Et al.
    Front Pharmacol
  5. Neuron-glia signaling in developing retina mediated by neurotransmitter spillover.
    Authors: Rosa Et al.
  6. An Asymmetric Increase in Inhibitory Synapse Number Underlies the Development of a Direction Selective Circuit in the Retina.
    Authors: Morrie and Feller
    J Neurosci
  7. PAR1-activated astrocytes in the nucleus of the solitary tract stimulate adjacent neurons via NMDA receptors.
    Authors: Vance Et al.
    J Neurosci
  8. Abnormal excitability and episodic low-frequency oscillations in the cerebral cortex of the tottering mouse.
    Authors: Cramer Et al.
    J Neurosci
  9. Osmoregulation requires brain expression of the renal Na-K-2Cl cotransporter NKCC2.
    Authors: Konopacka Et al.
    J Neurosci
  10. Morphological and physiological evidence of a synaptic connection between the lateral parabrachial nucleus and neurons in the A7 catecholamine cell group in rats.
    Authors: Liu Et al.
    J Biomed Sci
  11. Deletion of aquaporin-4 increases extracellular K(+) concentration during synaptic stimulation in mouse hippocampus.
    Authors: Haj-Yasein Et al.
    Brain Struct Funct
  12. Early depolarizing GABA controls critical-period plasticity in the rat visual cortex.
    Authors: Deidda Et al.
    Nat Neurosci
  13. The rat retina has five types of ganglion-cell photoreceptors.
    Authors: Reifler Et al.
    Exp Eye Res
  14. Intrinsic excitability varies by sex in prepubertal striatal medium spiny neurons.
    Authors: Dorris Et al.
    J Neurophysiol
  15. Advantages and limitations of the use of optogenetic approach in studying fast-scale spike encoding.
    Authors: Malyshev Et al.
    PLoS One
  16. Kinetic evaluation of photosensitivity in bi-stable variants of chimeric channelrhodopsins.
    Authors: Hososhima Et al.
    PLoS One
  17. Type I intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells of early post-natal development correspond to the M4 subtype.
    Authors: Sexton Et al.
    Neural Dev
  18. Neonatal NMDA receptor blockade disrupts spike timing and glutamatergic synapses in fast spiking interneurons in a NMDA receptor hypofunction model of schizophrenia.
    Authors: Jones Et al.
    PLoS One
  19. Inhibitory projections from the ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body to the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body in the mouse.
    Authors: Albrecht Et al.
    Front Neural Circuits
  20. Electrophysiological characterization of granule cells in the dentate gyrus immediately after birth.
    Authors: Pedroni Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci
  21. Synapse elimination and learning rules co-regulated by MHC class I H2-Db.
    Authors: Lee Et al.
  22. Fast and efficient neural conversion of human hematopoietic cells.
    Authors: Castaño Et al.
    Stem Cell Reports
  23. Mutant β-III spectrin causes mGluR1α mislocalization and functional deficits in a mouse model of spinocerebellar ataxia type 5.
    Authors: Armbrust Et al.
    J Neurosci
  24. Phasic, nonsynaptic GABA-A receptor-mediated inhibition entrains thalamocortical oscillations.
    Authors: Rovó Et al.
    J Neurosci
  25. Vortioxetine disinhibits pyramidal cell function and enhances synaptic plasticity in the rat hippocampus.
    Authors: Dale Et al.
    J Psychopharmacol
  26. Munc18-1 redistributes in nerve terminals in an activity- and PKC-dependent manner.
    Authors: Cijsouw Et al.
    J Cell Biol
  27. Cav1.3 channels control D2-autoreceptor responses via NCS-1 in substantia nigra dopamine neurons.
    Authors: Dragicevic Et al.
  28. An auditory colliculothalamocortical brain slice preparation in mouse.
    Authors: Llano Et al.
    J Neurophysiol
  29. Characterization of corticotropin-releasing hormone neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus of Crh-IRES-Cre mutant mice.
    Authors: Cusulin Et al.
    PLoS One
  30. Low voltage activation of KCa1.1 current by Cav3-KCa1.1 complexes.
    Authors: Rehak Et al.
    PLoS One
  31. A conformational intermediate in glutamate receptor activation.
    Authors: Lau Et al.
  32. Social stress alters inhibitory synaptic input to distinct subpopulations of raphe serotonin neurons.
    Authors: Crawford Et al.
    ACS Chem Neurosci
  33. Ghrelin increases GABAergic transmission and interacts with ethanol actions in the rat central nucleus of the amygdala.
    Authors: Cruz Et al.
  34. GABA(A) receptors can initiate the formation of functional inhibitory GABAergic synapses.
    Authors: Fuchs Et al.
    Eur J Neurosci
  35. Development of the corticothalamic projections.
    Authors: Grant Et al.
    Front Neurosci
  36. Dopaminergic modulation of ganglion-cell photoreceptors in rat.
    Authors: Hook Et al.
    Eur J Neurosci
  37. GABA is excitatory in adult vasopressinergic neuroendocrine cells.
    Authors: Haam Et al.
    J Neurosci
  38. Ventral tegmental area glutamate neurons: electrophysiological properties and projections.
    Authors: Hnasko Et al.
    J Neurosci
  39. Activity-dependent phosphorylation of GABAA receptors regulates receptor insertion and tonic current.
    Authors: Saliba Et al.
    EMBO J
  40. Munc13 controls the location and efficiency of dense-core vesicle release in neurons.
    Authors: Bospoort Et al.
    J Cell Biol
  41. Receptor subtype-dependent galanin actions on gamma-aminobutyric acidergic neurotransmission and ethanol responses in the central amygdala.
    Authors: Bajo Et al.
    Addict Biol
  42. Intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channels modulate summation of parallel fiber input in cerebellar Purkinje cells.
    Authors: Engbers Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
  43. Endocannabinoids gate state-dependent plasticity of synaptic inhibition in feeding circuits.
    Authors: Crosby Et al.
  44. Determinants of functional coupling between astrocytes and respiratory neurons in the pre-Bötzinger complex.
    Authors: Schnell Et al.
    PLoS One
  45. GABAergic signalling in a neurogenic niche of the turtle spinal cord.
    Authors: Reali Et al.
    J Physiol
  46. Structure and function of bistratified intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells in the mouse.
    Authors: Schmidt and Kofuji
    J Comp Neurol
  47. Neto1 is an auxiliary subunit of native synaptic kainate receptors.
    Authors: Tang Et al.
    J Neurosci
  48. Regulation of synaptic stability by AMPA receptor reverse signaling.
    Authors: Ripley Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
  49. Defective GABAergic neurotransmission and pharmacological rescue of neuronal hyperexcitability in the amygdala in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome.
    Authors: Olmos-Serrano Et al.
    J Neurosci
  50. Ubiquitination acutely regulates presynaptic neurotransmitter release in mammalian neurons.
    Authors: Rinetti and Schweizer
    J Neurosci
  51. Control of CA3 output by feedforward inhibition despite developmental changes in the excitation-inhibition balance.
    Authors: Torborg Et al.
    J Neurosci
  52. Light-evoked NMDA receptor-mediated currents are reduced by blocking D-serine synthesis in the salamander retina.
    Authors: Stevens Et al.
  53. Glutamate-induced NFκB activation in the retina.
    Authors: Fan and Cooper
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci
  54. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor- and metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent long-term depression are differentially regulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system.
    Authors: Citri Et al.
    Eur J Neurosci
  55. Functional and morphological differences among intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells.
    Authors: Schmidt and Kofuji
    J Neurosci
  56. Cytoskeletal changes underlie estrogen's acute effects on synaptic transmission and plasticity.
    Authors: Kramár Et al.
    J Neurosci
  57. Rapid and sensitive mapping of long-range connections in vitro using flavoprotein autofluorescence imaging combined with laser photostimulation.
    Authors: Llano Et al.
    J Neurophysiol
  58. Neuropeptide S-mediated control of fear expression and extinction: role of intercalated GABAergic neurons in the amygdala.
    Authors: Jüngling Et al.
  59. Deficits in phosphorylation of GABA(A) receptors by intimately associated protein kinase C activity underlie compromised synaptic inhibition during status epilepticus.
    Authors: Terunuma Et al.
    J Neurosci
  60. Blockade of cochlear NMDA receptors prevents long-term tinnitus during a brief consolidation window after acoustic trauma.
    Authors: Guitton and Dudai
    Neural Plast
  61. A quantitative assessment of glutamate uptake into hippocampal synaptic terminals and astrocytes: new insights into a neuronal role for excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2).
    Authors: Furness Et al.
  62. Endocytosis and recycling of AMPA receptors lacking GluR2/3.
    Authors: Biou Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
  63. Tonically active inhibition selectively controls feedforward circuits in mouse barrel cortex.
    Authors: Krook-Magnuson Et al.
    J Neurophysiol
  64. Ionic factors governing rebound burst phenotype in rat deep cerebellar neurons.
    Authors: Molineux Et al.
    J Neurophysiol
  65. Changes in synaptic morphology accompany actin signaling during LTP.
    Authors: Chen Et al.
    J Neurosci
  66. Glutamate receptor expression and chronic glutamate toxicity in rat motor cortex.
    Authors: Young Et al.
    Neurobiol Dis
  67. Amyloid precursor protein overexpression depresses excitatory transmission through both presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms.
    Authors: Ting Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
  68. Tumor necrosis factor α stimulates NMDA receptor activity in mouse cortical neurons resulting in ERK-dependent death.
    Authors: Jara Et al.
    J Neurochem
  69. Regulation of thalamocortical patterning and synaptic maturation by NeuroD2.
    Authors: Ince-Dunn Et al.
  70. Altered balance of glutamatergic/GABAergic synaptic input and associated changes in dendrite morphology after BDNF expression in BDNF-deficient hippocampal neurons.
    Authors: Singh Et al.
    J Neurosci
  71. Insufficient sleep reversibly alters bidirectional synaptic plasticity and NMDA receptor function.
    Authors: Kopp Et al.
    J Neurosci
  72. Synaptic inputs to retinal ganglion cells that set the circadian clock.
    Authors: Perez-Leon Et al.
    Eur J Neurosci
  73. D-serine is the dominant endogenous coagonist for NMDA receptor neurotoxicity in organotypic hippocampal slices.
    Authors: Shleper Et al.
    J Neurosci
  74. Signaling microdomains regulate inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-mediated intracellular calcium transients in cultured neurons.
    Authors: Jacob Et al.
    J Neurosci
  75. Bidirectional synaptic plasticity in the cerebellum-like mammalian dorsal cochlear nucleus.
    Authors: Fujino and Oertel
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
  76. Molecular components and functions of the endocannabinoid system in mouse prefrontal cortex.
    Authors: Lafourcade Et al.
    PLoS One
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Tocris Small Molecules
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DNQX disodium salt

2312 5  
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