DNQX

Catalog # Availability Size / Price Qty
0189/10
0189/50
DNQX | CAS No. 2379-57-9 | AMPA Receptor Antagonists
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Description: Selective non-NMDA iGluR antagonist

Chemical Name: 6,7-Dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione

Purity: ≥98%

Product Details
Citations (110)
Supplemental Products
Reviews (1)

Biological Activity

DNQX is a selective non-NMDA receptor antagonist.

Water-soluble Salt also available.

Technical Data

M.Wt:
252.14
Formula:
C8H4N4O6
Solubility:
Soluble to 100 mM in DMSO
Purity:
≥98%
Storage:
Store at RT
CAS No:
2379-57-9

The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only, unless stated otherwise.

Additional Information

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Citations for DNQX

The citations listed below are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for DNQX include:

110 Citations: Showing 1 - 10

  1. Molecular components and functions of the endocannabinoid system in mouse prefrontal cortex.
    Authors: Lafourcade Et al.
    PLoS One  ;2:e709
  2. A Single-Cell Model for Synaptic Transmission and Plasticity in Human iPSC-Derived Neurons.
    Authors: Meijer Et al.
    Cell Rep  2019;27:2199
  3. Somatostatin Interneurons Promote Neuronal Synchrony in the Neonatal Hippocampus.
    Authors: Flossmann Et al.
    Cell Rep  2019;26:3173
  4. Design and validation of a foldable and photovoltaic wide-field epiretinal prosthesis.
    Authors: Ferlauto Et al.
    Nat Commun  2018;9:992
  5. Activity-Dependent Downscaling of Subthreshold Synaptic Inputs during Slow-Wave-Sleep-like Activity In Vivo.
    Authors: González-Rueda Et al.
    Neuron  2018;97:1244
  6. DA Cells Differentially Regulate Striatal Cholinergic Transmission across Regions through Corelease of DA and Glutamate.
    Authors: Cai and Ford
    Cell Rep  2018;25:3148
  7. Synaptic phospholipids as a new target for cortical hyperexcitability and E/I balance in psychiatric disorders.
    Authors: Thalman Et al.
    Mol Psychiatry  2018;23(8):1699
  8. HIPP neurons in the dentate gyrus mediate the cholinergic modulation of background context memory salience.
    Authors: Ahsan Raza
    Nat Commun  2017;8(1):189
  9. Loss of MeCP2 in cholinergic neurons causes part of RTT-like phenotypes via α7 receptor in hippocampus.
    Authors: Zhang Et al.
    Cell Res  2016;26:728
  10. Fixed single-cell transcriptomic characterization of human radial glial diversity.
    Authors: Thomsen Et al.
    Nat Methods  2016;13:87
  11. Reduced Hyperpolarization-Activated Current Contributes to Enhanced Intrinsic Excitability in Cultured Hippocampal Neurons from PrP(-/-) Mice.
    Authors: Fan Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci  2016;10:74
  12. GABAA receptor activity shapes the formation of inhibitory synapses between developing medium spiny neurons.
    Authors: Arama Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci  2015;9:290
  13. High salt intake increases blood pressure via BDNF-mediated downregulation of KCC2 and impaired baroreflex inhibition of vasopressin neurons.
    Authors: Choe Et al.
    Neuron  2015;85:549
  14. IL-1 interacts with ethanol effects on GABAergic transmission in the mouse central amygdala.
    Authors: Bajo Et al.
    Front Pharmacol  2015;6:49
  15. Neuron-glia signaling in developing retina mediated by neurotransmitter spillover.
    Authors: Rosa Et al.
    Elife  2015;4
  16. An Asymmetric Increase in Inhibitory Synapse Number Underlies the Development of a Direction Selective Circuit in the Retina.
    Authors: Morrie and Feller
    J Neurosci  2015;35:9281
  17. PAR1-activated astrocytes in the nucleus of the solitary tract stimulate adjacent neurons via NMDA receptors.
    Authors: Vance Et al.
    J Neurosci  2015;35:776
  18. Abnormal excitability and episodic low-frequency oscillations in the cerebral cortex of the tottering mouse.
    Authors: Cramer Et al.
    J Neurosci  2015;35:5664
  19. Osmoregulation requires brain expression of the renal Na-K-2Cl cotransporter NKCC2.
    Authors: Konopacka Et al.
    J Neurosci  2015;35:5144
  20. Morphological and physiological evidence of a synaptic connection between the lateral parabrachial nucleus and neurons in the A7 catecholamine cell group in rats.
    Authors: Liu Et al.
    J Biomed Sci  2015;22:79
  21. Deletion of aquaporin-4 increases extracellular K(+) concentration during synaptic stimulation in mouse hippocampus.
    Authors: Haj-Yasein Et al.
    Brain Struct Funct  2015;220:2469
  22. Early depolarizing GABA controls critical-period plasticity in the rat visual cortex.
    Authors: Deidda Et al.
    Nat Neurosci  2015;18:87
  23. The rat retina has five types of ganglion-cell photoreceptors.
    Authors: Reifler Et al.
    Exp Eye Res  2015;130:17
  24. Intrinsic excitability varies by sex in prepubertal striatal medium spiny neurons.
    Authors: Dorris Et al.
    J Neurophysiol  2015;113:720
  25. Activity-dependent differences in function between proximal and distal Schaffer collaterals.
    Authors: Owen and Grover
    J Neurophysiol  2015;113:3646
  26. Advantages and limitations of the use of optogenetic approach in studying fast-scale spike encoding.
    Authors: Malyshev Et al.
    PLoS One  2015;10:e0122286
  27. Kinetic evaluation of photosensitivity in bi-stable variants of chimeric channelrhodopsins.
    Authors: Hososhima Et al.
    PLoS One  2015;10:e0119558
  28. Type I intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells of early post-natal development correspond to the M4 subtype.
    Authors: Sexton Et al.
    Neural Dev  2015;10:17
  29. Neonatal NMDA receptor blockade disrupts spike timing and glutamatergic synapses in fast spiking interneurons in a NMDA receptor hypofunction model of schizophrenia.
    Authors: Jones Et al.
    PLoS One  2014;9:e109303
  30. Inhibitory projections from the ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body to the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body in the mouse.
    Authors: Albrecht Et al.
    Front Neural Circuits  2014;8:83
  31. Electrophysiological characterization of granule cells in the dentate gyrus immediately after birth.
    Authors: Pedroni Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci  2014;8:44
  32. Laser-scanning astrocyte mapping reveals increased glutamate-responsive domain size and disrupted maturation of glutamate uptake following neonatal cortical freeze-lesion.
    Authors: Armbruster Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci  2014;8:277
  33. Synapse elimination and learning rules co-regulated by MHC class I H2-Db.
    Authors: Lee Et al.
    Nature  2014;509:195
  34. Fast and efficient neural conversion of human hematopoietic cells.
    Authors: Castaño Et al.
    Stem Cell Reports  2014;3:1118
  35. Nociceptin/orphanin FQ decreases glutamate transmission and blocks ethanol-induced effects in the central amygdala of naive and ethanol-dependent rats.
    Authors: Kallupi Et al.
    Neuropsychopharmacology  2014;39:1081
  36. Mutant β-III spectrin causes mGluR1α mislocalization and functional deficits in a mouse model of spinocerebellar ataxia type 5.
    Authors: Armbrust Et al.
    J Neurosci  2014;34:9891
  37. Phasic, nonsynaptic GABA-A receptor-mediated inhibition entrains thalamocortical oscillations.
    Authors: Rovó Et al.
    J Neurosci  2014;34:7137
  38. Vort. disinhibits pyramidal cell function and enhances synaptic plasticity in the rat hippocampus.
    Authors: Dale Et al.
    J Psychopharmacol  2014;28:891
  39. Munc18-1 redistributes in nerve terminals in an activity- and PKC-dependent manner.
    Authors: Cijsouw Et al.
    J Cell Biol  2014;204:759
  40. Cav1.3 channels control D2-autoreceptor responses via NCS-1 in substantia nigra DA neurons.
    Authors: Dragicevic Et al.
    Brain  2014;137:2287
  41. An auditory colliculothalamocortical brain slice preparation in mouse.
    Authors: Llano Et al.
    J Neurophysiol  2014;111:197
  42. BDNF-endocannabinoid interactions at neocortical inhibitory synapses require phospholipase C signaling.
    Authors: Zhao
    J Neurophysiol  2014;111:1008
  43. Characterization of corticotropin-releasing hormone neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus of Crh-IRES-Cre mutant mice.
    Authors: Cusulin Et al.
    PLoS One  2013;8:e64943
  44. Low voltage activation of KCa1.1 current by Cav3-KCa1.1 complexes.
    Authors: Rehak Et al.
    PLoS One  2013;8:e61844
  45. A conformational intermediate in glutamate receptor activation.
    Authors: Lau Et al.
    Neuron  2013;79:492
  46. Social stress alters inhibitory synaptic input to distinct subpopulations of raphe serotonin neurons.
    Authors: Crawford Et al.
    ACS Chem Neurosci  2013;4:200
  47. Ghrelin increases GABAergic transmission and interacts with ethanol actions in the rat central nucleus of the amygdala.
    Authors: Cruz Et al.
    Neuropsychopharmacology  2013;38:364
  48. GABA(A) receptors can initiate the formation of functional inhibitory GABAergic synapses.
    Authors: Fuchs Et al.
    Eur J Neurosci  2013;38:3146
  49. Disrupted Cl(-) homeostasis contributes to reductions in the inhibitory efficacy of D.pam during hyperexcited states.
    Authors: Deeb Et al.
    Eur J Neurosci  2013;38:2453
  50. PrPC controls via protein kinase A the direction of synaptic plasticity in the immature hippocampus.
    Authors: Caiati Et al.
    J Neurosci  2013;33:2973
  51. TRPM2 channels are required for NMDA-induced burst firing and contribute to H(2)O(2)-dependent modulation in substantia nigra pars reticulata GABAergic neurons.
    Authors: Lee Et al.
    J Neurosci  2013;33:1157
  52. Calcium responses to synaptically activated bursts of action potentials and their synapse-independent replay in cultured networks of hippocampal neurons.
    Authors: Bengtson Et al.
    Biochim Biophys Acta  2013;1833:1672
  53. Contribution of near-threshold currents to intrinsic oscillatory activity in rat medial entorhinal cortex layer II stellate cells.
    Authors: Boehlen Et al.
    J Neurophysiol  2013;109:445
  54. A modulatory effect of the feedback from higher visual areas to V1 in the mouse.
    Authors: Pasquale and Sherman
    J Neurophysiol  2013;109:2618
  55. Epileptiform activity in the CA1 region of the hippocampus becomes refractory to attenuation by cannabinoids in part because of endogenous γ-aminobutyric acid type B receptor activity.
    Authors: Messer and Levine
    J Neurosci Res  2012;90:1454
  56. Development of the corticothalamic projections.
    Authors: Grant Et al.
    Front Neurosci  2012;6:53
  57. DArgic modulation of ganglion-cell photoreceptors in rat.
    Authors: Hook Et al.
    Eur J Neurosci  2012;35:507
  58. GABA is excitatory in adult vasopressinergic neuroendocrine cells.
    Authors: Haam Et al.
    J Neurosci  2012;32:572
  59. Ventral tegmental area glutamate neurons: electrophysiological properties and projections.
    Authors: Hnasko Et al.
    J Neurosci  2012;32:15076
  60. Activity-dependent phosphorylation of GABAA receptors regulates receptor insertion and tonic current.
    Authors: Saliba Et al.
    EMBO J  2012;31:2937
  61. Munc13 controls the location and efficiency of dense-core vesicle release in neurons.
    Authors: Bospoort Et al.
    J Cell Biol  2012;199:883
  62. Receptor subtype-dependent galanin actions on gamma-aminobutyric acidergic neurotransmission and ethanol responses in the central amygdala.
    Authors: Bajo Et al.
    Addict Biol  2012;17:694
  63. Intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channels modulate summation of parallel fiber input in cerebellar Purkinje cells.
    Authors: Engbers Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  2012;109:2601
  64. Endocannabinoids gate state-dependent plasticity of synaptic inhibition in feeding circuits.
    Authors: Crosby Et al.
    Neuron  2011;71:529
  65. Determinants of functional coupling between astrocytes and respiratory neurons in the pre-Bötzinger complex.
    Authors: Schnell Et al.
    PLoS One  2011;6:e26309
  66. CCK stimulation of GLP-1 neurons involves α1-adrenoceptor-mediated increase in glutamatergic synaptic inputs.
    Authors: Hisadome Et al.
    Diabetes  2011;60:2701
  67. GABAergic signalling in a neurogenic niche of the turtle spinal cord.
    Authors: Reali Et al.
    J Physiol  2011;589:5633
  68. Structure and function of bistratified intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells in the mouse.
    Authors: Schmidt and Kofuji
    J Comp Neurol  2011;519:1492
  69. Compartmentalization of the GABAB receptor signaling complex is required for presynaptic inhibition at hippocampal synapses.
    Authors: Laviv Et al.
    J Neurosci  2011;31:12523
  70. Prolonged postinhibitory rebound firing in the cerebellar nuclei mediated by group I metabotropic glutamate receptor potentiation of L-type calcium currents.
    Authors: Zheng and Raman
    J Neurosci  2011;31:10283
  71. Neto1 is an auxiliary subunit of native synaptic kainate receptors.
    Authors: Tang Et al.
    J Neurosci  2011;31:10009
  72. Regulation of synaptic stability by AMPA receptor reverse signaling.
    Authors: Ripley Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  2011;108:367
  73. Inhibitory-excitatory synaptic balance is shifted toward increased excitation in magnocellular neurosecretory cells of heart failure rats.
    Authors: Potapenko Et al.
    J Neurophysiol  2011;106:1545
  74. Defective GABAergic neurotransmission and pharmacological rescue of neuronal hyperexcitability in the amygdala in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome.
    Authors: Olmos-Serrano Et al.
    J Neurosci  2010;30:9929
  75. Ubiquitination acutely regulates presynaptic neurotransmitter release in mammalian neurons.
    Authors: Rinetti and Schweizer
    J Neurosci  2010;30:3157
  76. Calcium binding to PICK1 is essential for the intracellular retention of AMPA receptors underlying long-term depression.
    Authors: Citri Et al.
    J Neurosci  2010;30:16437
  77. Control of CA3 output by feedforward inhibition despite developmental changes in the excitation-inhibition balance.
    Authors: Torborg Et al.
    J Neurosci  2010;30:15628
  78. A p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent mechanism of disinhibition in spinal synaptic transmission induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha.
    Authors: Zhang Et al.
    J Neurosci  2010;30:12844
  79. Repeated stress impairs endocannabinoid signaling in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus.
    Authors: Wamsteeker Et al.
    J Neurosci  2010;30:11188
  80. Light-evoked NMDA receptor-mediated currents are reduced by blocking D-serine synthesis in the salamander retina.
    Authors: Stevens Et al.
    Neuroreport  2010;21:239
  81. Non-cell-autonomous factor induces the transition from excitatory to inhibitory GABA signaling in retina independent of activity.
    Authors: Barkis Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  2010;107:22302
  82. Glutamate-induced NFκB activation in the retina.
    Authors: Fan and Cooper
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci  2009;50:917
  83. N-MthD.-aspartate receptor- and metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent long-term depression are differentially regulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system.
    Authors: Citri Et al.
    Eur J Neurosci  2009;30:1443
  84. Functional and morphological differences among intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells.
    Authors: Schmidt and Kofuji
    J Neurosci  2009;29:476
  85. Cytoskeletal changes underlie estrogen's acute effects on synaptic transmission and plasticity.
    Authors: Kramár Et al.
    J Neurosci  2009;29:12982
  86. Rapid and sensitive mapping of long-range connections in vitro using flavoprotein autofluorescence imaging combined with laser photostimulation.
    Authors: Llano Et al.
    J Neurophysiol  2009;101:3325
  87. Neuropeptide S-mediated control of fear expression and extinction: role of intercalated GABAergic neurons in the amygdala.
    Authors: Jüngling Et al.
    Neuron  2008;59:298
  88. Low expression of Kv7/M channels facilitates intrinsic and network bursting in the developing rat hippocampus.
    Authors: Safiulina Et al.
    J Physiol  2008;586:5437
  89. Deficits in phosphorylation of GABA(A) receptors by intimately associated protein kinase C activity underlie compromised synaptic inhibition during status epilepticus.
    Authors: Terunuma Et al.
    J Neurosci  2008;28:376
  90. Blockade of cochlear NMDA receptors prevents long-term tinnitus during a brief consolidation window after acoustic trauma.
    Authors: Guitton and Dudai
    Neural Plast  2008;2007:80904
  91. A quantitative assessment of glutamate uptake into hippocampal synaptic terminals and astrocytes: new insights into a neuronal role for excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2).
    Authors: Furness Et al.
    Neuroscience  2008;157:80
  92. Endocytosis and recycling of AMPA receptors lacking GluR2/3.
    Authors: Biou Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  2008;105:1038
  93. Tonically active inhibition selectively controls feedforward circuits in mouse barrel cortex.
    Authors: Krook-Magnuson Et al.
    J Neurophysiol  2008;100:932
  94. Ionic factors governing rebound burst phenotype in rat deep cerebellar neurons.
    Authors: Molineux Et al.
    J Neurophysiol  2008;100:2684
  95. Changes in synaptic morphology accompany actin signaling during LTP.
    Authors: Chen Et al.
    J Neurosci  2007;27:5363
  96. NMDA receptor activation potentiates inhibitory transmission through GABA receptor-associated protein-dependent exocytosis of GABA(A) receptors.
    Authors: Marsden Et al.
    J Neurosci  2007;27:14326
  97. Glutamate receptor expression and chronic glutamate toxicity in rat motor cortex.
    Authors: Young Et al.
    Neurobiol Dis  2007;26:78
  98. Amyloid precursor protein overexpression depresses excitatory transmission through both presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms.
    Authors: Ting Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  2007;104:353
  99. Tumor necrosis factor α stimulates NMDA receptor activity in mouse cortical neurons resulting in ERK-dependent death.
    Authors: Jara Et al.
    J Neurochem  2007;100:1407
  100. Regulation of thalamocortical patterning and synaptic maturation by NeuroD2.
    Authors: Ince-Dunn Et al.
    Neuron  2006;49:683
  101. Altered balance of glutamatergic/GABAergic synaptic input and associated changes in dendrite morphology after BDNF expression in BDNF-deficient hippocampal neurons.
    Authors: Singh Et al.
    J Neurosci  2006;26:7189
  102. Insufficient sleep reversibly alters bidirectional synaptic plasticity and NMDA receptor function.
    Authors: Kopp Et al.
    J Neurosci  2006;26:12456
  103. Synaptic inputs to retinal ganglion cells that set the circadian clock.
    Authors: Perez-Leon Et al.
    Eur J Neurosci  2006;24:1117
  104. D-serine is the dominant endogenous coagonist for NMDA receptor neurotoxicity in organotypic hippocampal slices.
    Authors: Shleper Et al.
    J Neurosci  2005;25:9413
  105. The wake-promoting peptide orexin-B inhibits glutamatergic transmission to dorsal raphe nucleus serotonin neurons through retrograde endocannabinoid signaling.
    Authors: Haj-Dahmane
    J Neurosci  2005;25:896
  106. Signaling microdomains regulate inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-mediated intracellular calcium transients in cultured neurons.
    Authors: Jacob Et al.
    J Neurosci  2005;25:2853
  107. Protective effect of ifenprodil against spreading depression in the mouse entorhinal cortex.
    Authors: Faria
    J Neurophysiol  2004;92:2610
  108. Bidirectional synaptic plasticity in the cerebellum-like mammalian dorsal cochlear nucleus.
    Authors: Fujino and Oertel
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  2003;100:265
  109. Synaptically released glutamate reduces gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic inhibition in the hippocampus via kainate receptors.
    Authors: Min Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  1999;96:9932
  110. Desensitization of AMPA receptors and AMPA-NMDA receptor interaction: an in vivo cyclic GMP microdialysis study in rat cerebellum.
    Authors: Fedele and Raiteri
    Br J Pharmacol  1996;117:1133

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Block of AMPAR sIPSCs
By Anonymous on 10/15/2020
Application: Species: Human

DNQX was used to block spontaneous AMPA-receptor – generated excitatory post-synaptic currents (EPSCs) in stem-cell derived cultured dopamine neurons. 20 µM DNQX fully suppressed EPSC propagation, thus confirming the compound's specificity (see illustration). Preparation of 10 mM DMSO stock requires long sonication; in all other respects it is a perfect AMPA-receptor antagonist.

Reference

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