Chemical Name: 6,7-Dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione
Biological ActivityDNQX is a selective non-NMDA receptor antagonist.
Water-soluble Salt also available.
The technical data provided above is for guidance only.
For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only, unless stated otherwise.
Quinoxalinediones: potent competitive non-NMDA glutamate receptor antagonists.
Honore et al.
Structure-activity relationships in the development of excitatory amino acid receptor agonists and competitive antagonists.
Watkins et al.
Citations for DNQX
The citations listed below are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for DNQX include:
110 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
Molecular components and functions of the endocannabinoid system in mouse prefrontal cortex.
Authors: Lafourcade Et al.
PLoS One ;2:e709
A Single-Cell Model for Synaptic Transmission and Plasticity in Human iPSC-Derived Neurons.
Authors: Meijer Et al.
Cell Rep 2019;27:2199
Somatostatin Interneurons Promote Neuronal Synchrony in the Neonatal Hippocampus.
Authors: Flossmann Et al.
Cell Rep 2019;26:3173
Design and validation of a foldable and photovoltaic wide-field epiretinal prosthesis.
Authors: Ferlauto Et al.
Nat Commun 2018;9:992
Activity-Dependent Downscaling of Subthreshold Synaptic Inputs during Slow-Wave-Sleep-like Activity In Vivo.
Authors: González-Rueda Et al.
DA Cells Differentially Regulate Striatal Cholinergic Transmission across Regions through Corelease of DA and Glutamate.
Authors: Cai and Ford
Cell Rep 2018;25:3148
Synaptic phospholipids as a new target for cortical hyperexcitability and E/I balance in psychiatric disorders.
Authors: Thalman Et al.
Mol Psychiatry 2018;23(8):1699
HIPP neurons in the dentate gyrus mediate the cholinergic modulation of background context memory salience.
Authors: Ahsan Raza
Nat Commun 2017;8(1):189
Loss of MeCP2 in cholinergic neurons causes part of RTT-like phenotypes via α7 receptor in hippocampus.
Authors: Zhang Et al.
Cell Res 2016;26:728
Fixed single-cell transcriptomic characterization of human radial glial diversity.
Authors: Thomsen Et al.
Nat Methods 2016;13:87
Reduced Hyperpolarization-Activated Current Contributes to Enhanced Intrinsic Excitability in Cultured Hippocampal Neurons from PrP(-/-) Mice.
Authors: Fan Et al.
Front Cell Neurosci 2016;10:74
GABAA receptor activity shapes the formation of inhibitory synapses between developing medium spiny neurons.
Authors: Arama Et al.
Front Cell Neurosci 2015;9:290
High salt intake increases blood pressure via BDNF-mediated downregulation of KCC2 and impaired baroreflex inhibition of vasopressin neurons.
Authors: Choe Et al.
IL-1 interacts with ethanol effects on GABAergic transmission in the mouse central amygdala.
Authors: Bajo Et al.
Front Pharmacol 2015;6:49
Neuron-glia signaling in developing retina mediated by neurotransmitter spillover.
Authors: Rosa Et al.
An Asymmetric Increase in Inhibitory Synapse Number Underlies the Development of a Direction Selective Circuit in the Retina.
Authors: Morrie and Feller
J Neurosci 2015;35:9281
PAR1-activated astrocytes in the nucleus of the solitary tract stimulate adjacent neurons via NMDA receptors.
Authors: Vance Et al.
J Neurosci 2015;35:776
Abnormal excitability and episodic low-frequency oscillations in the cerebral cortex of the tottering mouse.
Authors: Cramer Et al.
J Neurosci 2015;35:5664
Osmoregulation requires brain expression of the renal Na-K-2Cl cotransporter NKCC2.
Authors: Konopacka Et al.
J Neurosci 2015;35:5144
Morphological and physiological evidence of a synaptic connection between the lateral parabrachial nucleus and neurons in the A7 catecholamine cell group in rats.
Authors: Liu Et al.
J Biomed Sci 2015;22:79
Deletion of aquaporin-4 increases extracellular K(+) concentration during synaptic stimulation in mouse hippocampus.
Authors: Haj-Yasein Et al.
Brain Struct Funct 2015;220:2469
Early depolarizing GABA controls critical-period plasticity in the rat visual cortex.
Authors: Deidda Et al.
Nat Neurosci 2015;18:87
The rat retina has five types of ganglion-cell photoreceptors.
Authors: Reifler Et al.
Exp Eye Res 2015;130:17
Intrinsic excitability varies by sex in prepubertal striatal medium spiny neurons.
Authors: Dorris Et al.
J Neurophysiol 2015;113:720
Activity-dependent differences in function between proximal and distal Schaffer collaterals.
Authors: Owen and Grover
J Neurophysiol 2015;113:3646
Advantages and limitations of the use of optogenetic approach in studying fast-scale spike encoding.
Authors: Malyshev Et al.
PLoS One 2015;10:e0122286
Kinetic evaluation of photosensitivity in bi-stable variants of chimeric channelrhodopsins.
Authors: Hososhima Et al.
PLoS One 2015;10:e0119558
Type I intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells of early post-natal development correspond to the M4 subtype.
Authors: Sexton Et al.
Neural Dev 2015;10:17
Neonatal NMDA receptor blockade disrupts spike timing and glutamatergic synapses in fast spiking interneurons in a NMDA receptor hypofunction model of schizophrenia.
Authors: Jones Et al.
PLoS One 2014;9:e109303
Inhibitory projections from the ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body to the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body in the mouse.
Authors: Albrecht Et al.
Front Neural Circuits 2014;8:83
Electrophysiological characterization of granule cells in the dentate gyrus immediately after birth.
Authors: Pedroni Et al.
Front Cell Neurosci 2014;8:44
Laser-scanning astrocyte mapping reveals increased glutamate-responsive domain size and disrupted maturation of glutamate uptake following neonatal cortical freeze-lesion.
Authors: Armbruster Et al.
Front Cell Neurosci 2014;8:277
Synapse elimination and learning rules co-regulated by MHC class I H2-Db.
Authors: Lee Et al.
Fast and efficient neural conversion of human hematopoietic cells.
Authors: Castaño Et al.
Stem Cell Reports 2014;3:1118
Nociceptin/orphanin FQ decreases glutamate transmission and blocks ethanol-induced effects in the central amygdala of naive and ethanol-dependent rats.
Authors: Kallupi Et al.
Mutant β-III spectrin causes mGluR1α mislocalization and functional deficits in a mouse model of spinocerebellar ataxia type 5.
Authors: Armbrust Et al.
J Neurosci 2014;34:9891
Phasic, nonsynaptic GABA-A receptor-mediated inhibition entrains thalamocortical oscillations.
Authors: Rovó Et al.
J Neurosci 2014;34:7137
Vort. disinhibits pyramidal cell function and enhances synaptic plasticity in the rat hippocampus.
Authors: Dale Et al.
J Psychopharmacol 2014;28:891
Munc18-1 redistributes in nerve terminals in an activity- and PKC-dependent manner.
Authors: Cijsouw Et al.
J Cell Biol 2014;204:759
Cav1.3 channels control D2-autoreceptor responses via NCS-1 in substantia nigra DA neurons.
Authors: Dragicevic Et al.
An auditory colliculothalamocortical brain slice preparation in mouse.
Authors: Llano Et al.
J Neurophysiol 2014;111:197
BDNF-endocannabinoid interactions at neocortical inhibitory synapses require phospholipase C signaling.
J Neurophysiol 2014;111:1008
Characterization of corticotropin-releasing hormone neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus of Crh-IRES-Cre mutant mice.
Authors: Cusulin Et al.
PLoS One 2013;8:e64943
Low voltage activation of KCa1.1 current by Cav3-KCa1.1 complexes.
Authors: Rehak Et al.
PLoS One 2013;8:e61844
A conformational intermediate in glutamate receptor activation.
Authors: Lau Et al.
Social stress alters inhibitory synaptic input to distinct subpopulations of raphe serotonin neurons.
Authors: Crawford Et al.
ACS Chem Neurosci 2013;4:200
Ghrelin increases GABAergic transmission and interacts with ethanol actions in the rat central nucleus of the amygdala.
Authors: Cruz Et al.
GABA(A) receptors can initiate the formation of functional inhibitory GABAergic synapses.
Authors: Fuchs Et al.
Eur J Neurosci 2013;38:3146
Disrupted Cl(-) homeostasis contributes to reductions in the inhibitory efficacy of D.pam during hyperexcited states.
Authors: Deeb Et al.
Eur J Neurosci 2013;38:2453
PrPC controls via protein kinase A the direction of synaptic plasticity in the immature hippocampus.
Authors: Caiati Et al.
J Neurosci 2013;33:2973
TRPM2 channels are required for NMDA-induced burst firing and contribute to H(2)O(2)-dependent modulation in substantia nigra pars reticulata GABAergic neurons.
Authors: Lee Et al.
J Neurosci 2013;33:1157
Calcium responses to synaptically activated bursts of action potentials and their synapse-independent replay in cultured networks of hippocampal neurons.
Authors: Bengtson Et al.
Biochim Biophys Acta 2013;1833:1672
Contribution of near-threshold currents to intrinsic oscillatory activity in rat medial entorhinal cortex layer II stellate cells.
Authors: Boehlen Et al.
J Neurophysiol 2013;109:445
A modulatory effect of the feedback from higher visual areas to V1 in the mouse.
Authors: Pasquale and Sherman
J Neurophysiol 2013;109:2618
Epileptiform activity in the CA1 region of the hippocampus becomes refractory to attenuation by cannabinoids in part because of endogenous γ-aminobutyric acid type B receptor activity.
Authors: Messer and Levine
J Neurosci Res 2012;90:1454
Development of the corticothalamic projections.
Authors: Grant Et al.
Front Neurosci 2012;6:53
DArgic modulation of ganglion-cell photoreceptors in rat.
Authors: Hook Et al.
Eur J Neurosci 2012;35:507
GABA is excitatory in adult vasopressinergic neuroendocrine cells.
Authors: Haam Et al.
J Neurosci 2012;32:572
Ventral tegmental area glutamate neurons: electrophysiological properties and projections.
Authors: Hnasko Et al.
J Neurosci 2012;32:15076
Activity-dependent phosphorylation of GABAA receptors regulates receptor insertion and tonic current.
Authors: Saliba Et al.
EMBO J 2012;31:2937
Munc13 controls the location and efficiency of dense-core vesicle release in neurons.
Authors: Bospoort Et al.
J Cell Biol 2012;199:883
Receptor subtype-dependent galanin actions on gamma-aminobutyric acidergic neurotransmission and ethanol responses in the central amygdala.
Authors: Bajo Et al.
Addict Biol 2012;17:694
Intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channels modulate summation of parallel fiber input in cerebellar Purkinje cells.
Authors: Engbers Et al.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2012;109:2601
Endocannabinoids gate state-dependent plasticity of synaptic inhibition in feeding circuits.
Authors: Crosby Et al.
Determinants of functional coupling between astrocytes and respiratory neurons in the pre-Bötzinger complex.
Authors: Schnell Et al.
PLoS One 2011;6:e26309
CCK stimulation of GLP-1 neurons involves α1-adrenoceptor-mediated increase in glutamatergic synaptic inputs.
Authors: Hisadome Et al.
GABAergic signalling in a neurogenic niche of the turtle spinal cord.
Authors: Reali Et al.
J Physiol 2011;589:5633
Structure and function of bistratified intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells in the mouse.
Authors: Schmidt and Kofuji
J Comp Neurol 2011;519:1492
Compartmentalization of the GABAB receptor signaling complex is required for presynaptic inhibition at hippocampal synapses.
Authors: Laviv Et al.
J Neurosci 2011;31:12523
Prolonged postinhibitory rebound firing in the cerebellar nuclei mediated by group I metabotropic glutamate receptor potentiation of L-type calcium currents.
Authors: Zheng and Raman
J Neurosci 2011;31:10283
Neto1 is an auxiliary subunit of native synaptic kainate receptors.
Authors: Tang Et al.
J Neurosci 2011;31:10009
Regulation of synaptic stability by AMPA receptor reverse signaling.
Authors: Ripley Et al.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2011;108:367
Inhibitory-excitatory synaptic balance is shifted toward increased excitation in magnocellular neurosecretory cells of heart failure rats.
Authors: Potapenko Et al.
J Neurophysiol 2011;106:1545
Defective GABAergic neurotransmission and pharmacological rescue of neuronal hyperexcitability in the amygdala in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome.
Authors: Olmos-Serrano Et al.
J Neurosci 2010;30:9929
Ubiquitination acutely regulates presynaptic neurotransmitter release in mammalian neurons.
Authors: Rinetti and Schweizer
J Neurosci 2010;30:3157
Calcium binding to PICK1 is essential for the intracellular retention of AMPA receptors underlying long-term depression.
Authors: Citri Et al.
J Neurosci 2010;30:16437
Control of CA3 output by feedforward inhibition despite developmental changes in the excitation-inhibition balance.
Authors: Torborg Et al.
J Neurosci 2010;30:15628
A p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent mechanism of disinhibition in spinal synaptic transmission induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha.
Authors: Zhang Et al.
J Neurosci 2010;30:12844
Repeated stress impairs endocannabinoid signaling in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus.
Authors: Wamsteeker Et al.
J Neurosci 2010;30:11188
Light-evoked NMDA receptor-mediated currents are reduced by blocking D-serine synthesis in the salamander retina.
Authors: Stevens Et al.
Non-cell-autonomous factor induces the transition from excitatory to inhibitory GABA signaling in retina independent of activity.
Authors: Barkis Et al.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2010;107:22302
Glutamate-induced NFκB activation in the retina.
Authors: Fan and Cooper
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2009;50:917
N-MthD.-aspartate receptor- and metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent long-term depression are differentially regulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system.
Authors: Citri Et al.
Eur J Neurosci 2009;30:1443
Functional and morphological differences among intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells.
Authors: Schmidt and Kofuji
J Neurosci 2009;29:476
Cytoskeletal changes underlie estrogen's acute effects on synaptic transmission and plasticity.
Authors: Kramár Et al.
J Neurosci 2009;29:12982
Rapid and sensitive mapping of long-range connections in vitro using flavoprotein autofluorescence imaging combined with laser photostimulation.
Authors: Llano Et al.
J Neurophysiol 2009;101:3325
Neuropeptide S-mediated control of fear expression and extinction: role of intercalated GABAergic neurons in the amygdala.
Authors: Jüngling Et al.
Low expression of Kv7/M channels facilitates intrinsic and network bursting in the developing rat hippocampus.
Authors: Safiulina Et al.
J Physiol 2008;586:5437
Deficits in phosphorylation of GABA(A) receptors by intimately associated protein kinase C activity underlie compromised synaptic inhibition during status epilepticus.
Authors: Terunuma Et al.
J Neurosci 2008;28:376
Blockade of cochlear NMDA receptors prevents long-term tinnitus during a brief consolidation window after acoustic trauma.
Authors: Guitton and Dudai
Neural Plast 2008;2007:80904
A quantitative assessment of glutamate uptake into hippocampal synaptic terminals and astrocytes: new insights into a neuronal role for excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2).
Authors: Furness Et al.
Endocytosis and recycling of AMPA receptors lacking GluR2/3.
Authors: Biou Et al.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2008;105:1038
Tonically active inhibition selectively controls feedforward circuits in mouse barrel cortex.
Authors: Krook-Magnuson Et al.
J Neurophysiol 2008;100:932
Ionic factors governing rebound burst phenotype in rat deep cerebellar neurons.
Authors: Molineux Et al.
J Neurophysiol 2008;100:2684
Changes in synaptic morphology accompany actin signaling during LTP.
Authors: Chen Et al.
J Neurosci 2007;27:5363
NMDA receptor activation potentiates inhibitory transmission through GABA receptor-associated protein-dependent exocytosis of GABA(A) receptors.
Authors: Marsden Et al.
J Neurosci 2007;27:14326
Glutamate receptor expression and chronic glutamate toxicity in rat motor cortex.
Authors: Young Et al.
Neurobiol Dis 2007;26:78
Amyloid precursor protein overexpression depresses excitatory transmission through both presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms.
Authors: Ting Et al.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2007;104:353
Tumor necrosis factor α stimulates NMDA receptor activity in mouse cortical neurons resulting in ERK-dependent death.
Authors: Jara Et al.
J Neurochem 2007;100:1407
Regulation of thalamocortical patterning and synaptic maturation by NeuroD2.
Authors: Ince-Dunn Et al.
Altered balance of glutamatergic/GABAergic synaptic input and associated changes in dendrite morphology after BDNF expression in BDNF-deficient hippocampal neurons.
Authors: Singh Et al.
J Neurosci 2006;26:7189
Insufficient sleep reversibly alters bidirectional synaptic plasticity and NMDA receptor function.
Authors: Kopp Et al.
J Neurosci 2006;26:12456
Synaptic inputs to retinal ganglion cells that set the circadian clock.
Authors: Perez-Leon Et al.
Eur J Neurosci 2006;24:1117
D-serine is the dominant endogenous coagonist for NMDA receptor neurotoxicity in organotypic hippocampal slices.
Authors: Shleper Et al.
J Neurosci 2005;25:9413
The wake-promoting peptide orexin-B inhibits glutamatergic transmission to dorsal raphe nucleus serotonin neurons through retrograde endocannabinoid signaling.
J Neurosci 2005;25:896
Signaling microdomains regulate inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-mediated intracellular calcium transients in cultured neurons.
Authors: Jacob Et al.
J Neurosci 2005;25:2853
Protective effect of ifenprodil against spreading depression in the mouse entorhinal cortex.
J Neurophysiol 2004;92:2610
Bidirectional synaptic plasticity in the cerebellum-like mammalian dorsal cochlear nucleus.
Authors: Fujino and Oertel
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2003;100:265
Synaptically released glutamate reduces gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic inhibition in the hippocampus via kainate receptors.
Authors: Min Et al.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1999;96:9932
Desensitization of AMPA receptors and AMPA-NMDA receptor interaction: an in vivo cyclic GMP microdialysis study in rat cerebellum.
Authors: Fedele and Raiteri
Br J Pharmacol 1996;117:1133
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DNQX was used to block spontaneous AMPA-receptor – generated excitatory post-synaptic currents (EPSCs) in stem-cell derived cultured dopamine neurons. 20 µM DNQX fully suppressed EPSC propagation, thus confirming the compound's specificity (see illustration). Preparation of 10 mM DMSO stock requires long sonication; in all other respects it is a perfect AMPA-receptor antagonist.