Detection of MFG‑E8 in Human Immature Dendritic Cells by Flow Cytometry. Human immature dendritic cells were stained with Mouse Anti-Human MFG‑E8 APC‑conjugated Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # IC27671A, filled histogram) or isotype control antibody (Catalog # IC003A, open histogram). To facilitate intracellular staining, cells were fixed with Flow Cytometry Fixation Buffer (Catalog # FC004) and permeabilized with Flow Cytometry Permeabilization/Wash Buffer I (Catalog # FC005). View our protocol for Staining Intracellular Molecules.
Preparation and Storage
The product is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage
Protect from light. Do not freeze.
12 months from date of receipt, 2 to 8 °C as supplied.
Milk Fat Globulin Protein E8 (MFG-E8), also known as Lactadherin, MP47, breast epithelial antigen BA46, and SED1, is a 66‑75 kDa pleiotropic secreted glycoprotein that promotes mammary gland morphogenesis, angiogenesis, and tumor progression. MFG-E8 also plays an important role in tissue homeostasis and the prevention of inflammation (1). Human MGF-E8 contains one N-terminal EGF-like domain and two C‑terminal F5/8-type discoidin-like domains (2). It shares 63% and 61% aa sequence identity with comparable regions of mouse and rat MFG-E8, respectively. Shorter isoforms of human MFG-E8 may have N-terminal deletions (beginning near the end of the first discoidin-like domain), internal deletions (lacking either the EGF-like domain or the central region of the second discoidin-like domain), or C‑terminal deletions (truncated within the second discoidin-like domain) (3). A 50 aa internal proteolytic fragment of human MFG-E8 (known as Medin) is a major component of aortic medial amyloid deposits (4). MFG-E8 is released into the milk in complex with lipid-containing milk fat globules. It is also found in multiple other cell types including endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells of the vasculature, immature dendritic cells, at the acrosomal cap of testicular and epididymal sperm, and in epithelial cells of the endometrium (1). MFG-E8 binds to the Integrins alpha V beta 3 and alpha V beta 5 and potentiates the angiogenic action of VEGF through VEGF R2 (5, 6). It reduces inflammation and tissue damage in a variety of settings. MFG-E8 functions as a bridge between phosphatidylserine on apoptotic cells and Integrin alpha V beta 3 on phagocytes, leading to the clearance of apoptotic debris (7). It mediates the engulfment of apoptotic bodies in atherosclerotic plaques and prion-infected brain (8, 9) and of apoptotic B cells during germinal center reactions (10, 11). MFG-E8 also promotes the removal of excess Collagen in fibrotic lungs and the regeneration of damaged intestinal epithelia (12, 13). Its tissue-protective role impairs anti‑tumor immunity and chemotherapy-induced apoptosis (14). MFG-E8 in the breastmilk blocks rotavirus infection in nursing babies (15).
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