Caspase-9 Inhibitor Z-LEHD-FMK

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Citations (72)

Caspase-9 Inhibitor Z-LEHD-FMK Summary

Cell permeable fluoromethyl ketone (FMK)-derivatized peptides act as effective irreversible Caspase inhibitors with no cytotoxic effects and, therefore, are useful tools for studying Caspase activity.


Shipping Conditions
The product is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Store the unopened product at -20 to -70 °C. Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Do not use past expiration date.

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Background: Caspase-9

Caspases are a family of cytosolic aspartate-specific cysteine proteases involved in the initiation and execution of apoptosis. They are expressed as latent zymogens and are activated by an autoproteolytic mechanism or by processing by other proteases (frequently other caspases). Human caspases can be subdivided into three functional groups: cytokine activation (caspase-1, -4, -5, and -13), apoptosis initiation (caspase-2, -8, -9, -and -10), and apoptosis execution (caspase-3, -6, and -7).

Caspases are regulated by a variety of stimili, including APAF1, CFLAR/FLIP, NOL3/ARC, and members of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family such as BIRC1/NAIP, BIRC2/cIAP-1, BIRC3/cIAP-2, BIRC4/XIAP, BIRC5/Survivin, and BIRC7/Livin. IAP activity is modulated by DIABLO/SMAC or PRSS25/HTRA2/Omi. Cell-permeable and irreversible peptide inhibitors are also available for different caspases.

Entrez Gene IDs
842 (Human)
Alternate Names
APAF-3APAF3; apoptotic protease activating factor 3; Apoptotic protease Mch-6; Apoptotic protease-activating factor 3; CASP9; CASP-9; caspase 9, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase; Caspase9; Caspase-9; EC; ICE-LAP6CASPASE-9c; ICE-like apoptotic protease 6; MCH6apoptosis-related cysteine protease

Citations for Caspase-9 Inhibitor Z-LEHD-FMK

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

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  1. TRAF3/p38-JNK Signalling Crosstalk with Intracellular-TRAIL/Caspase-10-Induced Apoptosis Accelerates ROS-Driven Cancer Cell-Specific Death by CD40
    Authors: K Ibraheem, AMA Yhmed, MM Nasef, NT Georgopoul
    Cells, 2022;11(20):.  2022
  2. Cell surface nucleolin is a novel ADAMTS5 receptor mediating endothelial cell apoptosis
    Authors: DC Kirman, B Renganatha, WK Chui, MW Chen, NA Kaya, R Ge
    Cell Death & Disease, 2022;13(2):172.  2022
  3. Cell death mechanisms induced by synergistic effects of halofuginone and artemisinin in colorectal cancer cells
    Authors: RH Gong, DJ Yang, HY Kwan, AP Lyu, GQ Chen, ZX Bian
    International Journal of Medical Sciences, 2022;19(1):175-185.  2022
  4. N-3-Hydroxy Dodecanoyl-DL-homoserine Lactone (OH-dDHL) Triggers Apoptosis of Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophages through the ER- and Mitochondria-Mediated Pathways
    Authors: K Woo, DH Kim, MH Oh, HS Park, CH Choi
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 2021;22(14):.  2021
  5. TNF-alpha synergises with IFN-gamma to induce caspase-8-JAK1/2-STAT1-dependent death of intestinal epithelial cells
    Authors: JA Woznicki, N Saini, P Flood, S Rajaram, CM Lee, P Stamou, A Skowyra, M Bustamante, K Regazzoni, N Crawford, SS McDade, DB Longley, P Aza-Blanc, F Shanahan, SA Zulquernai, J McCarthy, S Melgar, BL McRae, K Nally
    Cell Death & Disease, 2021;12(10):864.  2021
  6. Targeting highly pathogenic coronavirus-induced apoptosis reduces viral pathogenesis and disease severity
    Authors: H Chu, H Shuai, Y Hou, X Zhang, L Wen, X Huang, B Hu, D Yang, Y Wang, C Yoon, BH Wong, C Li, X Zhao, VK Poon, JP Cai, KK Wong, ML Yeung, J Zhou, RK Au-Yeung, S Yuan, DY Jin, KH Kok, S Perlman, JF Chan, KY Yuen
    Science Advances, 2021;7(25):.  2021
  7. Role of JNK activation in paclitaxel-induced apoptosis in human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma
    Authors: YY Lan, YH Chen, C Liu, KL Tung, YT Wu, SC Lin, CH Wu, HY Chang, YC Chen, BM Huang
    Oncology Letters, 2021;22(4):705.  2021
  8. Extracts of select endemic plants from the Republic of Mauritius exhibiting anti-cancer and immunomodulatory properties
    Authors: S Kauroo, J Govinden-S, VM Ranghoo-Sa, K Miranda, WE Cotham, MD Walla, M Nagarkatti, P Nagarkatti
    Scientific Reports, 2021;11(1):4272.  2021
  9. Protective role of cytoplasmic p21Cip1/Waf1 in apoptosis of CDK4/6 inhibitor-induced senescence in breast cancer cells
    Authors: ID Kartika, H Kotani, Y Iida, A Koyanagi, R Tanino, M Harada
    Cancer Medicine, 2021;0(0):.  2021
  10. Osteogenic impact of pro-apoptotic caspase inhibitors in MC3T3-E1 cells
    Authors: A Kratochvíl, B Veselá, V Ledvina, E Švandová, K Klepárník, K Dadáková, P Beneš, E Matalová
    Sci Rep, 2020;10(1):7489.  2020
  11. The mechanism of how CD95/Fas activates the Type I IFN/STAT1 axis, driving cancer stemness in breast cancer
    Authors: AS Qadir, AM Stults, AE Murmann, ME Peter
    Sci Rep, 2020;10(1):1310.  2020
  12. Sanguinarine Induces Apoptosis in Papillary Thyroid Cancer Cells via Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species
    Authors: AQ Khan, EAN Mohamed, I Hakeem, A Nazeer, S Kuttikrish, KS Prabhu, KS Siveen, Z Nawaz, A Ahmad, H Zayed, S Uddin
    Molecules, 2020;25(5):.  2020
  13. ROS-Mediated Apoptotic Cell Death of Human Colon Cancer LoVo Cells by Milk delta-Valerobetaine
    Authors: N D'Onofrio, NA Cacciola, E Martino, F Borrelli, F Fiorino, A Lombardi, G Neglia, ML Balestrier, G Campanile
    Sci Rep, 2020;10(1):8978.  2020
  14. Programmed expression of pro-apoptotic BMCC1 during apoptosis, triggered by DNA damage in neuroblastoma cells
    Authors: MS Islam, R Takano, T Yokochi, J Akter, Y Nakamura, A Nakagawara, Y Tatsumi
    BMC Cancer, 2019;19(1):542.  2019
  15. CASP9 (caspase 9) is essential for autophagosome maturation through regulation of mitochondrial homeostasis
    Authors: HK An, KM Chung, H Park, J Hong, JE Gim, H Choi, YW Lee, J Choi, JY Mun, SW Yu
    Autophagy, 2019;0(0):1-20.  2019
  16. Genetic Screen in Chlamydia muridarum Reveals Role for an Interferon-Induced Host Cell Death Program in Antimicrobial Inclusion Rupture
    Authors: AM Giebel, S Hu, K Rajaram, R Finethy, E Toh, JA Brothwell, SG Morrison, RJ Suchland, BD Stein, J Coers, RP Morrison, DE Nelson
    MBio, 2019;10(2):.  2019
  17. BRD9 binds cell type-specific chromatin regions regulating leukemic cell survival via STAT5 inhibition
    Authors: N Del Gaudio, A Di Costanz, NQ Liu, L Conte, A Migliaccio, M Vermeulen, JHA Martens, HG Stunnenber, A Nebbioso, L Altucci
    Cell Death Dis, 2019;10(5):338.  2019
  18. Eukaryotic initiation factor 5B (eIF5B) provides a critical cell survival switch to glioblastoma cells via regulation of apoptosis
    Authors: JA Ross, KV Dungen, KR Bressler, M Fredriksen, D Khandige S, N Balasingam, N Thakor
    Cell Death Dis, 2019;10(2):57.  2019
  19. Blockade of ALK4/5 signaling suppresses cadmium- and erastin-induced cell death in renal proximal tubular epithelial cells via distinct signaling mechanisms
    Authors: K Fujiki, H Inamura, T Sugaya, M Matsuoka
    Cell Death Differ., 2019;0(0):.  2019
  20. Differentiated Macrophages Acquire a Pro-Inflammatory and Cell Death-Resistant Phenotype Due to Increasing XIAP and P38-mediated inhibition of RipK1
    Authors: D Rijal, A Ariana, A Wight, K Kim, NA Alturki, Z Aamir, E Ametepe, RG Korneluk, C Tiedje, MB Menon, M Gaestel, S McComb, S Sad
    J. Biol. Chem., 2018;0(0):.  2018
  21. Bacterial Pore-Forming Toxins Promote the Activation of Caspases in Parallel to Necroptosis to Enhance Alarmin Release and Inflammation During Pneumonia
    Authors: N Gonzalez-J, KM Bradley, AN Riegler, LF Reyes, T Brissac, SS Park, MI Restrepo, CJ Orihuela
    Sci Rep, 2018;8(1):5846.  2018
  22. Pseudomonas aeruginosa ExoS Induces Intrinsic Apoptosis in Target Host Cells in a Manner That is Dependent on its GAP Domain Activity
    Authors: A Kaminski, KH Gupta, JW Goldufsky, HW Lee, V Gupta, SH Shafikhani
    Sci Rep, 2018;8(1):14047.  2018
  23. Bcl-2-mediated control of TRAIL-induced apoptotic response in the non-small lung cancer cell line NCI-H460 is effective at late caspase processing steps
    Authors: L Danish, D Imig, F Allgöwer, P Scheurich, N Pollak
    PLoS ONE, 2018;13(6):e0198203.  2018
  24. The isolation, structural characterization and anti-osteosarcoma activity of a water soluble polysaccharide from Agrimonia pilosa
    Authors: W Huang, H Deng, S Jin, X Ma, K Zha, M Xie
    Carbohydr Polym, 2018;187(0):19-25.  2018
  25. C33-A cells transfected with E6*I or E6*II the short forms of HPV-16 E6, displayed opposite effects on cisplatin-induced apoptosis
    Authors: CE Vaisman, O Del Moral-, S Moreno-Cam, E Aréchaga-O, R Bonilla-Mo, I Garcia-Agu, L Cedillo-Ba, J Berumen, P Nava, N Villegas-S
    Virus Res., 2018;247(0):94-101.  2018
  26. Reactive oxygen species-induced parthanatos of immunocytes by human cytomegalovirus-associated substance
    Authors: JH Kim, J Kim, J Roh, CS Park, JY Seoh, ES Hwang
    Microbiol. Immunol., 2018;0(0):.  2018
  27. Synergistic Antitumour Properties of viscumTT in Alveolar Rhabdomyosarcoma
    Authors: RM Stammer, S Kleinsimon, J Rolff, S Jäger, A Eggert, G Seifert, CI Delebinski
    J Immunol Res, 2017;2017(0):4874280.  2017
  28. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid increases anti-cancer effect of tumor necrosis factor-? through up-regulation of TNF receptor 1 in lung cancer cells.
    Authors: Bo Ra You, Bo Ram Han, Woo Hyun Park
    Oncotarget, 2017;0(0):1949-2553.  2017
  29. Shikonin-induced necroptosis is enhanced by the inhibition of autophagy in non-small cell lung cancer cells
    Authors: HJ Kim, KE Hwang, DS Park, SH Oh, HY Jun, KH Yoon, ET Jeong, HR Kim, YS Kim
    J Transl Med, 2017;15(1):123.  2017
  30. Host cell interactions of outer membrane vesicle-associated virulence factors of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157: Intracellular delivery, trafficking and mechanisms of cell injury
    Authors: M Bielaszews, C Rüter, A Bauwens, L Greune, KA Jarosch, D Steil, W Zhang, X He, R Lloubes, A Fruth, KS Kim, MA Schmidt, U Dobrindt, A Mellmann, H Karch
    PLoS Pathog, 2017;13(2):e1006159.  2017
  31. Lactobacilli enhance reactive oxygen species-dependent apoptosis-inducing signaling
    Authors: H Krüger, G Bauer
    Redox Biol, 2017;11(0):715-724.  2017
  32. Local anesthetic bupivacaine induced ovarian and prostate cancer apoptotic cell death and underlying mechanisms in vitro
    Sci Rep, 2016;6(0):26277.  2016
  33. Stage-specific embryonic antigen-3 (SSEA-3) and beta3GalT5 are cancer specific and significant markers for breast cancer stem cells.
    Authors: Cheung S, Chuang P, Huang H, Hwang-Verslues W, Cho C, Yang W, Shen C, Hsiao M, Hsu T, Chang C, Wong C
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2016;113(4):960-5.  2016
  34. Macrophage Apoptosis Triggered by IpaD from Shigella flexneri
    Authors: O Arizmendi, WD Picking, WL Picking
    Infect Immun, 2016;0(0):.  2016
  35. Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans Are Important for Islet Amyloid Formation and Islet Amyloid Polypeptide-induced Apoptosis.
    Authors: Oskarsson M, Singh K, Wang J, Vlodavsky I, Li J, Westermark G
    J Biol Chem, 2015;290(24):15121-32.  2015
  36. Source and Purity of Dengue-Viral Preparations Impact Requirement for Enhancing Antibody to Induce Elevated IL-1beta Secretion: A Primary Human Monocyte Model.
    Authors: Callaway J, Smith S, Widman D, McKinnon K, Scholle F, Sempowski G, Dittmer D, Crowe J, de Silva A, Ting J
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(8):e0136708.  2015
  37. Mesenchymal Wnt/beta-Catenin Signaling Controls Epithelial Stem Cell Homeostasis in Teeth by Inhibiting the Antiapoptotic Effect of Fgf10.
    Authors: Yang Z, Balic A, Michon F, Juuri E, Thesleff I
    Stem Cells, 2015;33(5):1670-81.  2015
  38. 5-Fluorouracil-induced apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells is caspase-9-dependent and mediated by activation of protein kinase C-delta
    Authors: Mhaidat N, Bouklihacene M, Thorne R
    Oncol Lett, 2014;8(2):699-704.  2014
  39. How liposomal Cisplatin overcomes chemoresistance in ovarian tumour cells.
    Anticancer Res, 2014;34(1):525-30.  2014
  40. Induction of caspase-dependent apoptosis by apigenin by inhibiting STAT3 signaling in HER2-overexpressing MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cells.
    Authors: Seo H, Ku J, Choi H, Woo J, Jang B, Shin Y, Ko S
    Anticancer Res, 2014;34(6):2869-82.  2014
  41. Transfection of poly(I:C) can induce reactive oxygen species-triggered apoptosis and interferon-beta-mediated growth arrest in human renal cell carcinoma cells via innate adjuvant receptors and the 2-5A system.
    Authors: Harashima N, Minami T, Uemura H, Harada M
    Mol Cancer, 2014;13(0):217.  2014
  42. Luteolin induces intrinsic apoptosis via inhibition of E6/E7 oncogenes and activation of extrinsic and intrinsic signaling pathways in HPV-18-associated cells.
    Authors: Ham S, Kim K, Kwon T, Bak Y, Lee D, Song Y, Park S, Park Y, Kim M, Kang J, Hong J, Yoon D
    Oncol Rep, 2014;31(6):2683-91.  2014
  43. Anti-apoptotic effect of caspase inhibitors on H(2)O(2)-treated HeLa cells through early suppression of its oxidative stress.
    Authors: Park W
    Oncol Rep, 2014;31(5):2413-21.  2014
  44. PX-12 inhibits the growth of A549 lung cancer cells via G2/M phase arrest and ROS-dependent apoptosis.
    Authors: You B, Shin H, Park W
    Int J Oncol, 2014;44(1):301-8.  2014
  45. TRAIL enhances apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells sensitized by hepatitis C virus infection: therapeutic implications.
    Authors: Jang, Jae Youn, Kim, Seong-Ju, Cho, Eun Kyun, Jeong, Soung Wo, Park, Eui Ju, Lee, Woong Ch, Lee, Sae Hwan, Kim, Sang Gyu, Kim, Young Se, Kim, Hong Soo, Kim, Boo Sung, Lin, Wenyu, Chung, Raymond
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(6):e98171.  2014
  46. Apoptosis and pro-inflammatory cytokine response of mast cells induced by influenza A viruses.
    Authors: Liu B, Meng D, Wei T, Zhang S, Hu Y, Wang M
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(6):e100109.  2014
  47. Late endosomal trafficking of alternative serotype adenovirus vaccine vectors augments antiviral innate immunity.
    Authors: Teigler J, Kagan J, Barouch D
    J Virol, 2014;88(18):10354-63.  2014
  48. Dengue viral protease interaction with NF-kappaB inhibitor alpha/beta results in endothelial cell apoptosis and hemorrhage development.
    Authors: Lin J, Lin S, Chen W, Yen Y, Lai C, Tao M, Lin Y, Miaw S, Wu-Hsieh B
    J Immunol, 2014;193(3):1258-67.  2014
  49. Purified vitexin compound 1 induces apoptosis through activation of FOXO3a in hepatocellular carcinoma.
    Authors: Wang, Jian-Gan, Zheng, Xing-Xin, Zeng, Guang-Ya, Zhou, Ying-Jun, Yuan, Hong
    Oncol Rep, 2014;31(1):488-96.  2014
  50. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid-induced HeLa cell death is closely correlated with oxidative stress and thioredoxin 1 levels.
    Authors: You B, Park W
    Int J Oncol, 2014;44(5):1745-55.  2014
  51. Brahma is essential for Drosophila intestinal stem cell proliferation and regulated by Hippo signaling.
    Authors: Jin, Yunyun, Xu, Jinjin, Yin, Meng-Xin, Lu, Yi, Hu, Lianxin, Li, Peixue, Zhang, Peng, Yuan, Zengqian, Ho, Margaret, Ji, Hongbin, Zhao, Yun, Zhang, Lei
    Elife, 2013;2(0):e00999.  2013
  52. The novel carboxamide analog ITR-284 induces caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death in human hepatocellular and colorectal cancer cells.
    Authors: Liao Y, Lu C, Lai K, Yang J, Kuo S, Wen Y, Fushiya S, Wu T
    Mol Med Rep, 2013;7(5):1539-44.  2013
  53. Casticin potentiates TRAIL-induced apoptosis of gastric cancer cells through endoplasmic reticulum stress.
    Authors: Zhou Y, Tian L, Long L, Quan M, Liu F, Cao J
    PLoS ONE, 2013;8(3):e58855.  2013
  54. Zoledronic acid significantly enhances radiationinduced apoptosis against human fibrosarcoma cells by inhibiting radioadaptive signaling.
    Authors: Koto K, Murata H, Kimura S, Sawai Y, Horie N, Matsui T, Ryu K, Ashihara E, Maekawa T, Kubo T, Fushiki S
    Int J Oncol, 2013;42(2):525-34.  2013
  55. Valproic acid inhibits the growth of HeLa cervical cancer cells via caspase-dependent apoptosis.
    Authors: Han B, You B, Park W
    Oncol Rep, 2013;30(6):2999-3005.  2013
  56. NAD+ acts on mitochondrial SirT3 to prevent axonal caspase activation and axonal degeneration.
    Authors: Magnifico S, Saias L, Deleglise B, Duplus E, Kilinc D, Miquel M, Viovy J, Brugg B, Peyrin J
    FASEB J, 2013;27(12):4712-22.  2013
  57. Inhibition of cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis-inducing activity of fungal taxol and its precursor baccatin III purified from endophytic Fusarium solani.
    Authors: Chakravarthi B, Sujay R, Kuriakose G, Karande A, Jayabaskaran C
    Cancer Cell Int, 2013;13(1):105.  2013
  58. PX-12-induced HeLa cell death is associated with oxidative stress and GSH depletion.
    Authors: Shin H, You B, Park W
    Oncol Lett, 2013;6(6):1804-1810.  2013
  59. HOCl-dependent singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radical generation modulate and induce apoptosis of malignant cells.
    Authors: Bauer G
    Anticancer Res, 2013;33(9):3589-602.  2013
  60. Combination of RGD compound and low-dose paclitaxel induces apoptosis in human glioblastoma cells.
    Authors: Chang MW, Lo JM, Juan HF, Chang HY, Chuang CY
    PLoS ONE, 2012;7(5):e37935.  2012
  61. Toll-like receptor 9 signaling by CpG-B oligodeoxynucleotides induces an apoptotic pathway in human chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells.
    Authors: Liang X, Moseman EA, Farrar MA
    Blood, 2010;115(24):5041-52.  2010
  62. Functional proteomics of resveratrol-induced colon cancer cell apoptosis: caspase-6-mediated cleavage of lamin A is a major signaling loop.
    Authors: Lee SC, Chan J, Clement MV, Pervaiz S
    Proteomics, 2006;6(8):2386-94.  2006
  63. Superoxide anions and hydrogen peroxide induce hepatocyte death by different mechanisms: involvement of JNK and ERK MAP kinases.
    Authors: Conde de la Rosa L, Schoemaker MH, Vrenken TE, Buist-Homan M, Havinga R, Jansen PL, Moshage H
    J. Hepatol., 2006;44(5):918-29.  2006
  64. Enhancement of Apo2L/TRAIL-mediated cytotoxicity in esophageal cancer cells by cisplatin.
    Authors: Tsai WS, Yeow WS, Chua A, Reddy RM, Nguyen DM, Schrump DS
    Mol. Cancer Ther., 2006;5(12):2977-90.  2006
  65. Mechanism of induction of pancreatic acinar cell apoptosis by hydrogen sulfide.
    Authors: Cao Y, Adhikari S, Ang AD, Moore PK, Bhatia M
    Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol., 2006;291(3):C503-10.  2006
  66. Enhancement of stress-induced apoptosis in B-lineage cells by caspase-9 inhibitor.
    Authors: Shah N, Asch RJ, Lysholm AS, Lebien TW
    Blood, 2004;104(9):2873-8.  2004
  67. RGDS peptide induces caspase 8 and caspase 9 activation in human endothelial cells.
    Authors: Aguzzi MS, Giampietri C, De Marchis F, Padula F, Gaeta R, Ragone G, Capogrossi MC, Facchiano A
    Blood, 2004;103(11):4180-7.  2004
  68. Increased sensitivity of early apoptotic cells to complement-mediated lysis.
    Authors: Attali G, Gancz D, Fishelson Z
    Eur. J. Immunol., 2004;34(11):3236-45.  2004
  69. Synergistic induction of apoptosis in breast cancer cells by cotreatment with butyrate and TNF-alpha, TRAIL, or anti-Fas agonist antibody involves enhancement of death receptors' signaling and requires P21(waf1).
    Authors: Chopin V, Slomianny C, Hondermarck H, Le Bourhis X
    Exp. Cell Res., 2004;298(2):560-73.  2004
  70. Study of caspase inhibitors for limiting death in mammalian cell culture.
    Authors: Sauerwald TM, Oyler GA, Betenbaugh MJ
    Biotechnol. Bioeng., 2003;81(3):329-40.  2003
  71. Apaf-1 is a mediator of E2F-1-induced apoptosis.
    Authors: Furukawa Y, Nishimura N, Furukawa Y, Satoh M, Endo H, Iwase S, Yamada H, Matsuda M, Kano Y, Nakamura M
    J. Biol. Chem., 2002;277(42):39760-8.  2002
  72. Targeting hypoxia-induced tumor stemness by activating pathogen-induced stem cell niche defense.
    Authors: Bhuyan S, Pal B, Pathak L, Saikia P, Mitra S, Gayan S, Mokhtari R, Li H, Ramana C, Baishya D, Das B
    Front Immunol, 0;13(0):933329.  0


  1. Does R&D Systems offer a negative control for Caspase Inihibitors with benzyloxycarbonyl group (Z-) at the N-terminus and the FMK functional group at the C-terminus?

    • Yes, R&D Systems offers Caspase Inhibitor Control Z-FA-FMK, Catalog # FMKC01, which is an inhibitor of cathepsins B and L but not caspases, and has been used in several systems as a negative control for peptide inhibitors of caspases.

  2. Are R&D Systems Caspase Inhibitors irreversible?

    • Yes, the majority of R&D Systems Caspase Inhibitors have a Fluoromethyl ketone (FMK) functional group on the C-terminus of the peptide, and act as effective irreversible inhibitors with no added cytotoxic effects. Inhibitors synthesized with a benzyloxycarbonyl group (also known as BOC or Z) at the N-terminus and O-methyl side chains exhibit enhanced cellular permeability.

      R&D Systems also offers a General Caspase Inhibitor, Q-VD-OPh, Catalog # OPH001, as well as a FITC-conjugated pan-caspase inhibitor (ApoStat), Catalog # FMK012, which are both cell-permeable, irreversible inhibitors of caspase activity.

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