Human S100A8/S100A9 Heterodimer Alexa Fluor® 405-conjugated Antibody Summary
Met1-Glu93 (S100A8) & Thr2-Pro114 (S100A9)
Accession # P05109 (S100A8) and P06702 (S100A9)
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Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
Preparation and Storage
- 12 months from date of receipt, 2 to 8 °C as supplied.
Background: S100A8/S100A9 Heterodimer
S100A8 (also known as MRP8, Calgranulin A, and CP-10) and S100A9 (also known as MRP14 and Calgranulin B) are pro-inflammatory members of the S100 family of secreted calcium binding proteins (1, 2). They are up-regulated in neutrophils and monocytes at sites of inflammation (e.g. psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, cardiac ischemia) and are present at elevated concentrations in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fluid (3-5). The 10 kDa human S100A8 and 14 kDa S100A9 each contain two EF‑hand calcium binding motifs. Human S100A8 shares 57% and 61% amino acid (aa) sequence identity with mouse and rat S100A8, respectively. Human S100A9 shares 57% and 62% amino acid sequence identity with mouse and rat S100A9, respectively (6, 7). In the presence of calcium or zinc, S100A8 and S100A9 associate into non-covalent homodimers and 34-35 kDa heterodimers with each other (8-10). The heterodimer additionally binds and sequesters manganese, thereby restricting the growth of Mn-dependent bacteria (11). The S100A8/A9 heterodimer exhibits functions beyond those performed by the individual proteins. These include binding to fatty acids such as arachidonic acid and promoting astrocyte proliferation (3, 12). S100A8, S100A9, and the heterodimer each promote neutrophil infiltration into sites of inflammation and inflammatory cytokine production by monocytes (4, 5, 9).
- Averill, M.M. et al. (2012) Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 32:223.
- Vogl, T. et al. (2012) Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13:2893.
- Siegenthaler, G. et al. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272:9371.
- Sunahori, K. et al. (2006) Arthritis Res. Ther. 8:R69.
- Volz, H.C. et al. (2012) Basic Res. Cardiol. 107:250.
- Odink, K. et al. (1987) Nature 330:80.
- Dorin, J.R. et al. (1987) Nature 326:614.
- Teigelkamp, S. et al. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266:13462.
- Ryckman, C. et al. (2003) J. Immunol. 170:3233.
- Vogl, T. et al. (2006) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1763:1298.
- Damo, S.M. et al. (2013) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110:3841.
- Ryu, M-J. et al. (2012) J. Biol. Chem. 287:22948.
Product Specific Notices
This product is provided under an agreement between Life Technologies Corporation and R&D Systems, Inc, and the manufacture, use, sale or import of this product is subject to one or more US patents and corresponding non-US equivalents, owned by Life Technologies Corporation and its affiliates. The purchase of this product conveys to the buyer the non-transferable right to use the purchased amount of the product and components of the product only in research conducted by the buyer (whether the buyer is an academic or for-profit entity). The sale of this product is expressly conditioned on the buyer not using the product or its components (1) in manufacturing; (2) to provide a service, information, or data to an unaffiliated third party for payment; (3) for therapeutic, diagnostic or prophylactic purposes; (4) to resell, sell, or otherwise transfer this product or its components to any third party, or for any other commercial purpose. Life Technologies Corporation will not assert a claim against the buyer of the infringement of the above patents based on the manufacture, use or sale of a commercial product developed in research by the buyer in which this product or its components was employed, provided that neither this product nor any of its components was used in the manufacture of such product. For information on purchasing a license to this product for purposes other than research, contact Life Technologies Corporation, Cell Analysis Business Unit, Business Development, 29851 Willow Creek Road, Eugene, OR 97402, Tel: (541) 465-8300. Fax: (541) 335-0354.
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