Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate

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Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate | CAS No. 16561-29-8 | Protein Kinase C Activators
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Description: Protein kinase C activator
Alternative Names: PMA

Chemical Name: (1aR,1bS,4aR,7aS,7bS,8R,9R,9aS)-9a-(Acetyloxy)-1a,1b,4,4a,5,7a,7b,8,9,9a-decahydro-4a,7b-dihydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)-1,1,6,8-tetramethyl-5-oxo-1H-cyclopropa[3,4]benz[1,2-e]azulen-9-yl tetradecanoate

Purity: ≥98%

Product Details
Citations (28)
Reviews (1)

Biological Activity

Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate is an extensively used phorbol ester high affinity activator of protein kinase C (Ki = 2.6 nM as measured by displacement of [3H]phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate binding in rat cortex synaptosomal membranes). It binds to the C1a and C1b domains of PKC inducing membrane translocation of PKC. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate activates the PKC isoforms PKCα, -β, -γ, -δ, -ε, -η, and -θ but not PKCζ or -ι/λ. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate is a tumor promoter. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate can also induce differentiation of THP-1 monocytes to a macrophage phenotype in vitro.

Technical Data

Soluble to 100 mM in DMSO
Store at -20°C

The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only, unless stated otherwise.

Background References

  1. Accumulation of 4-1BBL+ B cells in the elderly induces the generation of granzyme-B+ CD8+ T cells with potential antitumor activity.
    Lee-Chang, Catalina, Bodogai, Monica, Moritoh, Kanako, Olkhanud, Purevdor, Chan, Andrew C, Croft, Michael, Mattison, Julie A, Holst, Peter Jo, Gress, Ronald E, Ferrucci, Luigi, Hakim, Fran, Biragyn, Arya
    Blood, 2014;124(9):1450-9.
  2. Silibinin inhibits TPA-induced cell migration and MMP-9 expression in thyroid and breast cancer cells.
    Oh S, Jung S, Han J, Kim S, Kim J, Nam S, Lee J, Kim J
    Oncol Rep, 2013;29(4):1343-8.
  3. Neurodegeneration in SCA14 is associated with increased PKC? kinase activity, mislocalization and aggregation
    MMK Wong, SD Hoekstra, J Vowles, LM Watson, G Fuller, AH Németh, SA Cowley, O Ansorge, K Talbot, EBE Becker
    Acta Neuropathol Commun, 2018;6(1):99.
  4. The acid-sensitive, anesthetic-activated potassium leak channel, KCNK3, is regulated by 14-3-3beta-dependent, protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated endocytic trafficking.
    Gabriel L, Lvov A, Orthodoxou D, Rittenhouse A, Kobertz W, Melikian H
    J Biol Chem, 2102;287(39):32354-66.
  5. Genetic deletion of amphiregulin restores the normal skin phenotype in a mouse model of the human skin disease tylosis
    V Hosur, BE Low, LD Shultz, MV Wiles
    Biol Open, 2017;0(0):.
  6. Protein kinase C-alpha downregulates estrogen receptor-alpha by suppressing c-Jun phosphorylation in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells.
    Kim S, Lee J, Lee S, Bae S, Kim J, Kim M, Kil W, Kim S, Lee J, Nam S
    Oncol Rep, 2014;31(3):1423-8.
  7. Direct activation of calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent protein kinase by tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
    Castagna et al.
    J.Biol.Chem., 1982;257:7847
  8. A diacylglycerol analogue reduces neuronal calcium currents independently of protein kinase C activation.
    Hockberger et al.
    Nature, 1989;338:340
  9. Structural determinants of phorbol ester binding in synaptosomes: pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.
    Murphy et al.
    Eur.J.Pharmacol., 1999;381:77
  10. Loss of RHBDF2 results in an early-onset spontaneous murine colitis
    R Geesala, W Schanz, M Biggs, G Dixit, J Skurski, P Gurung, DK Meyerholz, D Elliott, PD Issuree, T Maretzky
    J. Leukoc. Biol., 2019;0(0):.
  11. Ginsenoside Rh2 Ameliorates Atopic Dermatitis in NC/Nga Mice by Suppressing NF-kappaB-Mediated Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin Expression and T Helper Type 2 Differentiation
    E Ko, S Park, JH Lee, CH Cui, J Hou, MH Kim, SC Kim
    Int J Mol Sci, 2019;20(24):.

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Citations for Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate

The citations listed below are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate include:

28 Citations: Showing 1 - 10

  1. Manipulation of Gut Microbiota Influences Immune Responses, Axon Preservation, and Motor Disability in a Model of Progressive Multiple Sclerosis.
    Authors: Mestre Et al.
    Front Immunol  2019;10:1374
  2. Developmental protein kinase C hyper-activation results in microcephaly and behavioral abnormalities in zebrafish.
    Authors: Liu Et al.
    Transl Psychiatry  2018;8:232
  3. Hypertension-evoked RhoA activity in vascular smooth muscle cells requires RGS5.
    Authors: Arnold Et al.
    FASEB J  2018;32:2021
  4. PKCε Inhibits Neuronal Dendritic Spine Development through Dual Phosphorylation of Ephexin5.
    Authors: Schaffer Et al.
    Cell Rep  2018;25:2470
  5. Molecular mechanism: the human DA transporter histidine 547 regulates basal and HIV-1 Tatprotein-inhibited DA transport.
    Authors: Quizon
    Scientific Reports  2016;6:39048
  6. A High Throughput Phenotypic Screening reveals compounds that counteract premature osteogenic differentiation of HGPS iPS-derived mesenchymal stem cells.
    Authors: Cicero Et al.
    Sci Rep  2016;6:34798
  7. New functional activity of aripipr. revealed: Robust antagonism of D2 DA receptor-stimulated Gβγ signaling.
    Authors: Brust Et al.
    J Vis Exp  2015;93:85
  8. Comparative Multi-Donor Study of IFNγ Secretion and Expression by Human PBMCs Using ELISPOT Side-by-Side with ELISA and Flow Cytometry Assays.
    Authors: Hagen Et al.
    Cells  2015;4:84
  9. Levitational Image Cytometry with Temporal Resolution.
    Authors: Tasoglu Et al.
    Adv Mater  2015;27:3901
  10. The ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter-2 (ABCA2) Overexpression Modulates Sphingosine Levels and Transcription of the Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) Gene.
    Authors: Davis
    Biochem Pharmacol  2015;12:847
  11. Autism-associated mutation inhibits protein kinase C-mediated neuroligin-4X enhancement of excitatory synapses.
    Authors: Bemben Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  2015;112:2551
  12. Mitogen-activated protein kinase-interacting kinase regulates mTOR/AKT signaling and controls the serine/arginine-rich protein kinase-responsive type 1 internal ribosome entry site-mediated translation and viral oncolysis.
    Authors: Brown Et al.
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther  2014;88:13149
  13. Transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor through platelet-activating factor/receptor in ovarian cancer cells.
    Authors: Yu Et al.
    J Exp Clin Cancer Res  2014;33:85
  14. The role of Nox1 and Nox2 in GPVI-dependent platelet activation and thrombus formation.
    Authors: Walsh Et al.
    Redox Biol  2014;2:178
  15. PMA induces SnoN proteolysis and CD61 expression through an autocrine mechanism.
    Authors: Li Et al.
    Cell Signal  2014;26:1369
  16. Heteromeric MT1/MT2 melatonin receptors modulate photoreceptor function.
    Authors: Baba Et al.
    Sci Signal  2013;6:ra89
  17. The analysis of purkinje cell dendritic morphology in organotypic slice cultures.
    Authors: Kapfhammer and Gugger
    J Biol Chem  2012;NULL
  18. Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1-dependent regulation of liver-related neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus diminished in the type 1 diabetic mouse.
    Authors: Gao Et al.
    J Virol  2012;61:1381
  19. Small molecule positive allosteric modulation of TRPV1 activation by vanilloids and acidic pH.
    Authors: Kaszás Et al.
    J Neurosci  2012;340:152
  20. Glucose-mediated control of ghrelin release from primary cultures of gastric mucosal cells.
    Authors: Sakata Et al.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab  2012;302:E1300
  21. The acid-sensitive, anesthetic-activated potassium leak channel, KCNK3, is regulated by 14-3-3β-dependent, protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated endocytic trafficking.
    Authors: Gabriel Et al.
    J Biol Chem  2012;287:32354
  22. Functional plasticity of central TRPV1 receptors in brainstem dorsal vagal complex circuits of streptozotocin-treated hyperglycemic mice.
    Authors: Zsombok Et al.
    Curr Alzheimer Res  2011;31:14024
  23. The plasma membrane-associated GTPase Rin interacts with the DA transporter and is required for protein kinase C-regulated DA transporter trafficking.
    Authors: Navaroli Et al.
    J Neurosci  2011;31:13758
  24. Regulation of glycine receptor diffusion properties and gephyrin interactions by protein kinase C.
    Authors: Specht Et al.
    EMBO J  2011;30:3842
  25. Involvement of the chemokine-like receptor GPR33 in innate immunity.
    Authors: Bohnekamp Et al.
    Br J Pharmacol  2010;396:272
  26. Inhibition of ATR protein kinase activity by schisandrin B in DNA damage response.
    Authors: Nishida Et al.
    Nucleic Acids Res  2009;37:5678
  27. Regulation of SHP-1 tyrosine phosphatase in human platelets by serine phosphorylation at its C terminus.
    Authors: Jones Et al.
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun  2004;279:40475
  28. Nifedipine facilitates neurotransmitter release independently of calcium channels.
    Authors: Hirasawa
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  2003;100:6139


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PMA stimulation of lymphocytes
By Anonymous on 01/25/2018

50 ng/ml PMA used to stimulate cells isolated from mesenteric lymphnodes, followed by staining for IL-17A

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