Recombinant Human EN-RAGE Protein, CF Summary
When rhRAGE/Fc Chimera (Catalog # 1145-RG) is coated at 2 μg/mL (100 μL/well), rhS100A12 binds with an apparent KD <30 nM.
This protein also enhances integrin activation on neutrophils as measured by flow cytometric analysis using beta 2 integrin activation reporter antibody mAb 24.
Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application.
CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.
In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.
|Formulation||Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS.|
|Reconstitution||Reconstitute at 200 μg/mL in PBS.|
|Shipping||The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.|
|Stability & Storage:||Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
EN-RAGE, also known as S100A12 and Calgranulin C, is a 10 kDa member of the S100 (soluble in 100% saturated ammonium sulfate) family of EF-hand calcium-binding proteins. Like other S100 proteins, S100A12 is small and generally acidic (1 - 3). EN-RAGE forms noncovalent homodimers in the absence of divalent cations (4 - 6); calcium and zinc promote the formation of higher order assemblies including tetramers and hexamers (4, 7, 8). The ability of S100A12 to chelate zinc enables it to inhibit the zinc-dependent metalloproteases MMP-2, -3, and -9 (8). S100A12 also forms heterodimers with S100A9 and binds to RAGE (Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-products), Annexin V, and several cytosolic enzymes involved in energy metabolism (9, 10). The hexameric form of EN-RAGE in particular binds RAGE with high affinity (7). EN-RAGE induces a variety of inflammatory responses including the in vivo recruitment of neutrophils, monocytes, and mast cells and the activation of mast cells and vascular endothelial cells (9, 11 - 14). EN-RAGE is found at elevated levels under inflammatory conditions such as asthma, gout, rheumatoid arthritis synovial fluid, and atherosclerosis (8, 12, 14). S100A12 also promotes neurite outgrowth in isolated hippocampal neurons (15). An ortholog of S100A12 has not been identified in rodents, but the human protein is functional in mice and rats (11 - 16).
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Citations for Recombinant Human EN-RAGE Protein, CF
R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.
Citations: Showing 1 - 2
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IL-22 is induced by S100/calgranulin and impairs cholesterol efflux in macrophages by downregulating ABCG1.
Authors: Chellan B, Yan L, Sontag T, Reardon C, Hofmann Bowman M
J Lipid Res, 2014;55(3):443-54.
Sample Types: Whole Cells
S100/Calgranulin-mediated inflammation accelerates left ventricular hypertrophy and aortic valve sclerosis in chronic kidney disease in a receptor for advanced glycation end products-dependent manner.
Authors: Yan L, Mathew L, Chellan B, Gardner B, Earley J, Puri T, Hofmann Bowman M
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol, 2014;34(7):1399-411.
Sample Types: Whole Cells
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