Recombinant Human Lymphotoxin alpha1/beta2 Protein, CF

Defined heterotrimer stoichiometry
  (3 citations)     
Datasheet / CoA / SDS
Product Details
Citations (3)
FAQs
Reviews
  • Purity
    >95%, by SDS-PAGE visualized with Silver Staining and quantitative densitometry by Coomassie® Blue Staining.
  • Endotoxin Level
    <0.10 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.
  • Activity
    Measured by its ability to induce IL-8 secretion by A375 human melanoma cells. The ED50 for this effect is 3-15 ng/mL.
  • Source
    Human embryonic kidney cell, HEK293-derived human Lymphotoxin protein
    rhLT alpha
    (Leu35-Leu205)
    Accession # P01374
    GGGGS rhLT beta
    (Gln49-Gly244)
    Accession # Q06643
    GGGGS rhLT beta
    (Gln49-Gly244)
    Accession # Q06643
    N-terminus C-terminus
  • Accession #
  • N-terminal Sequence
    Analysis
    Leu35
  • Structure / Form
    GS-linked heterotrimer
  • Predicted Molecular Mass
    61 kDa
  • SDS-PAGE
    65-76 kDa, reducing conditions
Product Datasheets

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Carrier Free
What does CF mean?
CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.
What formulation is right for me?
In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.
8884-LY/CF
 
8884-LY
Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS.
 
Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with BSA as a carrier protein.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 500 μg/mL in sterile PBS.
 
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 500 μg/mL in sterile PBS.
Shipping The product is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
 
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
 
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Background: Lymphotoxin
Lymphotoxin alpha (LT-alpha ), and Lymphotoxin beta (LT-beta ) are pro-inflammatory TNF superfamily ligands that play important roles in immune system development (1, 2). The 25 kDa mature human LT-alpha is a secreted protein that shares 75% amino acid (aa) sequence identity with mouse and rat LT-alpha (3, 4). The 33 kDa mature human LT-beta is a type II transmembrane protein that shares 73% aa sequence identity with mouse and rat LT-beta within common regions of their extracellular domains (5). Relative to the human protein, mouse and rat LT-beta have a 66 aa or 65 aa insertion within the ECD, respectively. LT-alpha can be secreted as a homotrimer that binds and activates TNF RI/TNFRSF1A, TNF RII/TNFRSF1B, HVEM/TNFRSF14, and Troy/TNFRSF19 (6-8). LT-alpha is required for development of the spleen, lymph nodes, and Peyer’s patches (9). It also regulates T cell homing to the gut and IgA induction (10). In addition, LT-alpha can form membrane-associated heterotrimers with two copies of LT-beta on the surface of B, T, LTi, and ILC3 cells (2, 5, 11). The Lymphotoxin alpha 1/ beta 2 heterotrimer binds and activates the Lymphotoxin beta R/TNFRSF3 (LT beta R) which is expressed on macrophages, dendritic cells, hepatocytes, intestinal epithelial cells (IEC), follicular dendritic cells (FDC), and high endothelial venules (HEV) (2, 12, 13). LT beta R also serves as a receptor for LIGHT/TNFSF14 (14). LT-alpha 1/ beta 2 promotes the development of FDC networks and HEV in lymphoid tissue, the class switching of immature B cells for IgA production, and the production of IL-22 by ILCs (10, 15-17). It can be shed by ADAM17 or MMP-8 mediated cleavage, and the released heterotrimer circulates in the serum and is elevated in synovial fluid of rheumatoid arthritis patients (18).
  • References:
    1. Lu, T.T. and J.L. Browning (2014) Front. Immunol. 5:47.
    2. Upadhyay, V. and Y.-X. Fu (2014) Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 25:227.
    3. Gray, P.W. et al. (1984) Nature 312:721.
    4. Nedwin, G.E. et al. (1985) J. Cell Biochem. 29:171.
    5. Browning, J.L. et al. (1993) Cell 72:847.
    6. Schoenfeld, H.J. et al. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266:3863.
    7. Mauri, D.N. et al. (1998) Immunity 8:21.
    8. Hashimoto, T. et al. (2008) Cell Cycle 7:106.
    9. De Togni, P. et al. (1994) Science 264:703.
    10. Kruglov, A.A. et al. (2013) Science 342:1243.
    11. Androlewicz, M.J. et al. (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267:2542.
    12. Sudhamsu, J. et al. (2013) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110:19896.
    13. Crowe, P.D. et al. (1994) Science 264:707.
    14. Eldredge, J. et al. (2006) Biochemistry 45:10117.
    15. Futterer, A. et al. (1998) Immunity 9:59.
    16. Koni, P.A. et al. (1997) Immunity 6:491.
    17. Ota, N. et al. (2011) Nat. Immunol. 12:941.
    18. Young, J. et al. (2010) Cytokine 51:78.
  • Entrez Gene IDs:
    4049 (Human); 16992 (Mouse)
  • Alternate Names:
    LT; Lymphotoxin alpha; Lymphotoxin; tnfb; TNFSF1; TNLG1E
Related Research Areas
Citations:

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

3 Citations: Showing 1 - 3
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Species
Applications
Sample Type
  1. Impaired lymph node stromal cell function during the earliest phases of rheumatoid arthritis
    Authors: JS Hähnlein, R Nadafi, T de Jong, TH Ramwadhdoe, JF Semmelink, KI Maijer, IA Zijlstra, M Maas, DM Gerlag, TBH Geijtenbee, PP Tak, RE Mebius, LGM van Baarse
    Arthritis Res. Ther., 2018;20(1):35.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  2. Eudesmane-Type Sesquiterpene Lactones Inhibit Nuclear Translocation of the Nuclear Factor ?B Subunit RelB in Response to a Lymphotoxin ? Stimulation
    Authors: HT Quach, T Kondo, M Watanabe, R Tamura, Y Yajima, S Sayama, M Ando, T Kataoka
    Biol. Pharm. Bull., 2017;40(10):1669-1677.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  3. Bimodal Expansion of the Lymphatic Vessels Is Regulated by the Sequential Expression of IL-7 and Lymphotoxin ?1?2 in Newly Formed Tertiary Lymphoid Structures
    J Immunol, 2016;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay

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