<0.10 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.
Measured by its ability to induce hemoglobin expression in K562 human chronic myelogenous leukemia cells. Schwall, R.H. et al. (1991) Method Enzymol. 198:340. The ED50 for this effect is 0.2-1.2 ng/mL. The specific activity of Recombinant Human/Mouse/Rat Activin A is approximately 1 IU/μg, which is calibrated against human Activin A WHO International Standard (NIBSC code: 91/626).
Chinese Hamster Ovary cell line, CHO-derived Activin A protein Gly311-Ser426 Manufactured and tested under cGMP guidelines.
GMP-grade Recombinant Human/Mouse/Rat Activin A (Catalog # 338‑GMP) induces hemoglobin expression in K562 human chronic myelogenous leukemia cells in a dose-dependent manner. The ED50 for this effect is 0.2‑1.2 ng/mL.
1 μg/lane of GMP-grade Recombinant Human/ Mouse/Rat Activin A (Catalog # 338‑GMP) was resolved with SDS-PAGE under reducing (R) and non-reducing (NR) conditions and visualized by silver staining, showing single bands at 14 kDa and 24 kDa, respectively.
Background: Activin A
Activin and Inhibin are members of the TGF-beta superfamily of cytokines and are involved in a wide range of biological processes including tissue morphogenesis and repair, fibrosis, inflammation, neural development, hematopoiesis, reproductive system function, and carcinogenesis (1‑7). Activin and Inhibin are produced as precursor proteins. Their amino terminal propeptides are proteolytically cleaved and facilitate formation of disulfide-linked dimers of the bioactive proteins (8, 9). Activins are nonglycosylated homodimers or heterodimers of various beta subunits ( beta A, beta B, beta C, and beta E in mammals), while Inhibins are heterodimers of a unique alpha subunit and one of the beta subunits. Activin A is a widely expressed homodimer of two beta A chains. The beta A subunit can also heterodimerize with a beta B or beta C subunit to form Activin AB and Activin AC, respectively (10). The 14 kDa mature human beta A chain shares 100% amino acid sequence identity with bovine, feline, mouse, porcine, and rat beta A. Activin A exerts its biological activities by binding to the type 2 serine/threonine kinase Activin RIIA which then noncovalently associates with the type 1 serine/threonine kinase Activin RIB/ALK-4 (7, 11). Signaling through this receptor complex leads to Smad activation and regulation of activin-responsive gene transcription (7, 11). The bioactivity of Activin A is regulated by a variety of mechanisms (11). BAMBI, Betaglycan, and Cripto are cell‑associated molecules that function as decoy receptors or limit the ability of Activin A to induce receptor complex assembly (12‑14). The intracellular formation of Activin A can be prevented by the incorporation of the beta A subunit into Activin AC or Inhibin A (3, 10). And the bioavailability of Activin A is restricted by its incorporation into inactive complexes with alpha 2-Macroglobulin, Follistatin, and FLRG (15, 16).
Kumanov, P. et al. (2005) Reprod. Biomed. Online 10:786.
Maeshima, A. et al. (2008) Endocr. J. 55:1.
Rodgarkia-Dara, C. et al. (2006) Mutat. Res. 613:123.
Werner, S. and C. Alzheimer (2006) Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 17:157.
Xu, P. and A.K. Hall (2006) Dev. Biol. 299:303.
Shav-Tal, Y. and D. Zipori (2002) Stem Cells 20:493.
Chen, Y.G. et al. (2006) Exp. Biol. Med. 231:534.
Gray, A.M. and A.J. Mason (1990) Science 247:1328.
Mason, A.J. et al. (1996) Mol. Endocrinol. 10:1055.
Thompson, T.B. et al. (2004) Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 225:9.
Harrison, C.A. et al. (2005) Trends Endocrinol. Metab. 16:73.
Onichtchouk, D. et al. (1999) Nature 401:480.
Gray, P.C. et al. (2002) Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 188:254.
Kelber, J.A. et al. (2008) J. Biol. Chem. 283:4490.
Phillips, D.J. et al. (1997) J. Endocrinol. 155:65.
Schneyer, A. et al. (2003) Endocrinology 144:1671.
Entrez Gene IDs:
3624 (Human); 16323 (Mouse)
Activin A; INHBA
GMP Proteins R&D Systems, a Bio-Techne Brand's GMP proteins are
produced according to relevant sections of the following documents: WHO
TRS, No. 822, 1992 Annex 1, Good Manufacturing Practices for Biological
Products; USP Chapter 1043, Ancillary Materials for Cell, Gene and
Tissue-Engineered Products and USP Chapter 92, Growth Factors and
Cytokines Used in Cell Therapy Manufacturing.
R&D Systems' quality focus includes:
Manufactured and tested under an ISO 9001:2015 and ISO 13485:2016 certified quality system
Documented processes and QA control of documentation and process changes
Personnel training programs
Raw material testing and vendor qualification/monitoring
Fully validated equipment, processes and test methods
Equipment calibration schedules using a computerized calibration program
Facility maintenance, safety programs and pest control
Material review process for variances
Monitoring of stability over product shelf-life
Systems strives to provide our customers with the analytical
characteristics of each product so that customers may determine whether
our products are appropriate for their research. The Certificate of
Analysis provided contains the following lot specific information:
amino acid analysis, SDS-PAGE analysis, and endotoxin level (as
determined by LAL assay) performed on each bulk QC lot, not on
individual bottlings of each QC lot
bioassay results (compliance with an established range) and results of
microbial bioburden testing (using broth culture, Sabourand's dextrose
and blood agar plates with results reported at 3 days and at 7 days)
Host Cell Protein testing performed by ELISA
Mycoplasma testing by ribosomal RNA hybridization assay
testing and documentation requested by the customer can be arranged at
an additional cost. Testing may include, but is not limited to, USP<
61> bioburden testing, positive identity testing, testing for
adventitious agents and testing for residual host cell content.
Production records and facilities are available for examination by
appropriate personnel on-site at R&D Systems in Minneapolis,
R&D Systems sells its GMP grade recombinant protein products for research use or further manufacturing use in ex vivo cell therapy applications. They are not for in vivo
use or for use as therapeutic or other drugs, biologic products or
devices. Please read the following End User Terms prior to using this
Product Specific Notices
The End User is aware that R&D Systems, Inc. sells its GMP products for research use only or further manufacturing and not for in vivo use, the production of therapeutics or other drugs or for biologic products or devices. The End User further agrees, as a condition of the sale of R&D Systems' GMP products that: a) the End User will not use this GMP Product in any procedure wherein the product may be directly or indirectly administered to humans, unless the End User has obtained, or prior to their use will have obtained, an Investigational New Drug (IND) exemption from the FDA and will use the product only in accordance with the protocols of such IND and of the Institutional Review Board overseeing the proposed research, or b) the End User will use the products outside of the United States in accordance with the protocols of research approved by the Institutional Review Board or authorized ethics committee and regulatory agencies to which the End User is subject to in their territory.
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R&D SYSTEMS DOES NOT MAKE ANY OTHER WARRANTY OR REPRESENTATION WHATSOEVER, WHETHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, WITH RESPECT TO ITS PRODUCTS. IN PARTICULAR, R&D SYSTEMS DOES NOT MAKE ANY WARRANTY OF SUITABILITY, NONINFRINGEMENT, MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
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