Embryonic and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Differentiation Pathways & Lineage-specific Markers

Click on a cell type below to view a subset of molecules used as markers for the identification of that cell type.

Adult Cells
Adult Cells
De-Differentiation
Factors
De-Differentiation
Factors
Self-renewal
Factors
Self-renewal
Factors
Pluripotent
Stem Cells
Pluripotent
Stem Cells
Blastocysts
Blastocysts
Activin
Activin
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LIF
LIF
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Wnt
Wnt
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FGF basic
FGF basic
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Noggin
Noggin
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Ectoderm
Differentiation Kit
Ectoderm
Differentiation Kit
Ectoderm
Ectoderm
EGF
EGF
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FGF basic
FGF basic
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Neural
Progenitors
Neural
Progenitors
BMP-4
BMP-4
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Epithelial
Stem Cells
Epithelial
Stem Cells
Activin A
Activin A
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BMP-4
BMP-4
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FGF basic
FGF basic
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Wnt
Wnt
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Mesoderm
Differentiation Kit
Mesoderm
Differentiation Kit
Mesoderm
Mesoderm
FGF basic
FGF basic
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Insulin
Insulin
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PDGF-BB
PDGF-BB
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TGF-beta 1
TGF-beta 1
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Mesenchymal
Stem Cells
Mesenchymal
Stem Cells
IL-3
IL-3
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IL-6
IL-6
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IL-11
IL-11
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SCF/c-kit
  Ligand
SCF/c-kit
  Ligand
VEGF
VEGF
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Hematopoietic
Stem Cells
Hematopoietic
Stem Cells
BMP-4
BMP-4
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Flt-3 Ligand
Flt-3 Ligand
SCF/c-kit Ligand
SCF/c-kit Ligand
Thrombopoietin/Tpo
Thrombopoietin/Tpo
VEGF
VEGF
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Hemangioblasts
Hemangioblasts
IL-3
IL-3
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IL-6
IL-6
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SCF/c-kit
  Ligand
SCF/c-kit
  Ligand
VEGF
VEGF
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Activin
Activin
Dkk-1
Dkk-1
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FGF-3,10,
  11,13,15
FGF-3,10,
  11,13,15
IL-3
IL-3
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IL-6
IL-6
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SCF/c-kit
  Ligand
SCF/c-kit
  Ligand
VEGF
VEGF
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Wnt-5a
Wnt-5a
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Cardiac
Progenitors
Cardiac
Progenitors
FGF-10
FGF-10
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Cardiomyocytes
Cardiomyocytes
Activin A
Activin A
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FGF basic
FGF basic
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Nodal
Nodal
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Wnt-3a
Wnt-3a
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Endoderm
Differentiation Kit
Endoderm
Differentiation Kit
Endoderm
Endoderm
BMP-4
BMP-4
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Collagen I
Collagen I
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FGF-4
FGF-4
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HGF
HGF
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Hepatocyte
Progenitors
Hepatocyte
Progenitors
FGF-10
FGF-10
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KGF/FGF-7
KGF/FGF-7
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Noggin
Noggin
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Sonic Hedgehog
Sonic Hedgehog
Pancreatic
Progenitors
Pancreatic
Progenitors
IGF1
IGF1
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HGF
HGF
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Beta Cells
Beta Cells
BMP-4 (low)
BMP-4 (low)
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FGF basic
FGF basic
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FGF-10
FGF-10
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FGF-18
FGF-18
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KGF/FGF-7
KGF/FGF-7
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Sonic Hedgehog
Sonic Hedgehog
Wnt-2a
Wnt-2a
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Wnt-2b
Wnt-2b
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Immature
Lung Cells
Immature
Lung Cells
FGF-4
FGF-4
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Wnt-3a
Wnt-3a
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Intestinal
Stem Cells
Intestinal
Stem Cells

Overview of Embryonic and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells & Lineage-specific Markers

Embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are self-renewing progenitors that have the capacity to differentiate into cells of the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. Naturally existing ES cells can be isolated from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst while iPS cells are generated from terminally differentiated somatic cells through induced expression of specific transcription factors, including Oct-3/4, KLF4, SOX2, and c-Myc. Regardless of the source, pluripotent stem cells hold enormous potential in basic and clinical studies through their ability to differentiate into a wide variety of cell types, including neurons, pancreatic beta cells, cardiomyocytes, and progenitor cells of the liver, lung and skin. The mechanisms controlling ES/iPS self-renewal and differentiation are influenced by a diverse set of growth factors, receptors, intracellular signaling molecules, and transcription factors. Cell fate determination often requires a tightly regulated temporal sequence of growth factor presentation and transcription factor expression. The factors depicted below are known to influence ES/iPS pluripotency, proliferation, and lineage commitment. ES/iPS cells and their differentiated progeny can be identified by the expression of a unique combination of cell surface markers and transcription factors. Unique identifiers for each cell can be viewed by clicking on that cell-type within the lineage pathway.

To learn more, please visit our Embryonic & Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Products Research Area.

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