Recombinant Human VEGF-D Protein

Carrier Free

Catalog # Availability Size / Price Qty
622-VD-005/CF
622-VD-025/CF

With Carrier

Catalog # Availability Size / Price Qty
622-VD-005
622-VD-025

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Citations (9)
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Recombinant Human VEGF-D Protein Summary

Product Specifications

Purity
>95%, by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions and visualized by silver stain.
Endotoxin Level
<1.0 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.
Activity
Measured in a cell proliferation assay using HMVEC human microvascular endothelial cells. Marconcini, L. et al. (1999) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96:9671. The ED50 for this effect is 0.1‑0.3 µg/mL. Measured by its binding ability in a functional ELISA. Immobilized recombinant human Flt-4 Fc Chimera at 5 µg/mL (100 µL/well) binds Recombinant Human VEGF‑D with an apparent KD <15 nM.
Source
Spodoptera frugiperda, Sf 21 (baculovirus)-derived human VEGF-D protein
Phe93-Ser201, with an N-terminal Met and C-terminal 6-His tag
Accession #
N-terminal Sequence
Analysis
Met
Predicted Molecular Mass
13 kDa (monomer)
SDS-PAGE
10-20 kDa, reducing conditions

Product Datasheets

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622-VD (with carrier)

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622-VD/CF (carrier free)

Carrier Free

What does CF mean?

CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.

What formulation is right for me?

In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.

622-VD

Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with BSA as a carrier protein.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 100 μg/mL in sterile PBS containing at least 0.1% human or bovine serum albumin.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.

622-VD/CF

Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 50 μg/mL in sterile PBS.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Reconstitution Calculator

Reconstitution Calculator

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Background: VEGF-D

Vascular endothelial growth factor D (VEGF-D), also known as c-fos-induced growth factor (FIGF), is a secreted glycoprotein of the VEGF/PDGF family. VEGFs regulate angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis during development and tumor growth, and are characterized by eight conserved cysteine residues that form a cystine knot structure (1-3). VEGF-C and VEGF-D, which share 23% amino acid (aa) sequence identity, are uniquely expressed as preproproteins that contain long N- and C‑terminal propeptide extensions around the VEGF homology domain (VHD) (1, 2). Proteolytic processing of the 354 aa VEGF-D preproprotein creates a secreted proprotein. Further processing by extracellular serine proteases, such as plasmin or furin-like proprotein convertases, forms mature VEGF-D consisting of non‑covalently linked 42 kDa homodimers of the 117 aa VHD (4 - 6). Mature human VEGF-D shares 94%, 95%, 99%, 97% and 93% aa identity with mouse, rat, equine, canine and bovine VEGF-D, respectively (4, 5). It is expressed in adult lung, heart, muscle, and small intestine, and is most abundantly expressed in fetal lungs and skin (1-4). Mouse and human VEGF-D are ligands for VEGF Receptor 3 (VEGF R3, also called Flt-4) that are active across species and show enhanced affinity when processed (7). Processed human VEGF-D is also a ligand for VEGF R2, also called Flk-1 or KDR (7). VEGF R3 is strongly expressed in lymphatic endothelial cells and is essential for regulation of the growth and differentiation of lymphatic endothelium (1, 2). While VEGF-C is the critical ligand for VEGF R3 during embryonic lymphatic development, VEGF-D is most active in neonatal lymphatic maturation and bone growth (8‑10). Both promote tumor lymphangiogenesis (11). Consonant with their activity on VEGF receptors, binding of VEGF-C and VEGF-D to neuropilins contributes to VEGF R3 signaling in lymphangiogenesis, while binding to integrin  alpha 9 beta 1 mediates endothelial cell adhesion and migration (12, 13).

References
  1. Roy, H. et al. (2006) FEBS Lett. 580:2879.
  2. Otrock, Z.H. et al. (2007) Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 38:258.
  3. Yamada, Y. et al. (1997) Genomics 42:483.
  4. Stacker, S.A. et al. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274:32127.
  5. McColl, B.K. et al. (2003) J. Exp. Med. 198:863.
  6. McColl, B.K. et al. (2007) FASEB J. 21:1088.
  7. Baldwin, M.E. et al. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276:19166.
  8. Baldwin, M.E. et al. (2005) Mol. Cell. Biol. 25:2441.
  9. Karpanen, T. et al. (2006) Am. J. Pathol. 169:708.
  10. Orlandini, M. et al. (2006) J. Biol. Chem. 281:17961.
  11. Stacker, S.A. et al. (2001) Nature Med. 7:186.
  12. Karpanen, T. et al. (2006) FASEB J. 20:1462.
  13. Vlahakis, N.E. et al. (2005) J. Biol. Chem. 280:4544.
Long Name
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor D/cFos-induced Growth Factor
Entrez Gene IDs
2277 (Human); 14205 (Mouse)
Alternate Names
c-fos induced growth factor (vascular endothelial growth factor D); FIGF; vascular endothelial growth factor D; VEGFD; VEGF-D; VEGF-DVEGFDc-Fos-induced growth factor

Citations for Recombinant Human VEGF-D Protein

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

9 Citations: Showing 1 - 9
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  1. Isolation and characterisation of lymphatic endothelial cells from lung tissues affected by lymphangioleiomyomatosis
    Authors: K Nishino, Y Yoshimatsu, T Muramatsu, Y Sekimoto, K Mitani, E Kobayashi, S Okamoto, H Ebana, Y Okada, M Kurihara, K Suzuki, J Inazawa, K Takahashi, T Watabe, K Seyama
    Scientific Reports, 2021;11(1):8406.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  2. Immunohistological features related to functional impairment in lymphangioleiomyomatosis
    Authors: ECTD Nascimento, BG Baldi, AW Mariani, R Annoni, RA Kairalla, SP Pimenta, LFF da Silva, CRR Carvalho, M Dolhnikoff
    Respir. Res., 2018;19(1):83.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC
  3. Alginate hydrogels allow for bioactive and sustained release of VEGF-C and VEGF-D for lymphangiogenic therapeutic applications
    Authors: KT Campbell, DJ Hadley, DL Kukis, EA Silva
    PLoS ONE, 2017;12(7):e0181484.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  4. Biomarker analyses in REGARD gastric/GEJ carcinoma patients treated with VEGFR2-targeted antibody ramucirumab
    Br J Cancer, 2016;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Serum
    Applications: ELISA (Control)
  5. Vascular endothelial growth factor-D modulates oxidant-antioxidant balance of human vascular endothelial cells
    J. Cell. Mol. Med, 2016;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Protein
    Applications: Western Blot
  6. Co-expression of alpha9beta1 integrin and VEGF-D confers lymphatic metastatic ability to a human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-468LN.
    Authors: Majumder M, Tutunea-Fatan E, Xin X, Rodriguez-Torres M, Torres-Garcia J, Wiebe R, Timoshenko AV, Bhattacharjee RN, Chambers AF, Lala PK
    PLoS ONE, 2012;7(4):e35094.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  7. Lymphatic reprogramming of microvascular endothelial cells by CEA-related cell adhesion molecule-1 via interaction with VEGFR-3 and Prox1.
    Authors: Kilic N, Oliveira-Ferrer L, Neshat-Vahid S, Irmak S, Obst-Pernberg K, Wurmbach JH, Loges S, Kilic E, Weil J, Lauke H, Tilki D, Singer BB, Ergun S
    Blood, 2007;110(13):4223-33.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  8. Microvascular patterning is controlled by fine-tuning the Akt signal.
    Authors: Sun JF, Phung T, Shiojima I, Felske T, Upalakalin JN, Feng D, Kornaga T, Dor T, Dvorak AM, Walsh K, Benjamin LE
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2005;102(1):128-33.
    Species: Bovine
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  9. A potential role for vascular endothelial growth factor-D as an autocrine growth factor for human breast carcinoma cells.
    Authors: Akahane M, Akahane T, Shah A, Okajima E, Thorgeirsson UP
    Anticancer Res., 2005;25(2):701-7.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay

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