Recombinant Mouse Gremlin Protein, CF

Formulations:
Catalog # Availability Size / Price Qty
956-GR-050/CF
Product Details
Citations (8)
FAQs
Supplemental Products
Reviews

Recombinant Mouse Gremlin Protein, CF Summary

Purity
>90%, by SDS-PAGE visualized with Silver Staining and quantitative densitometry by Coomassie® Blue Staining.
Endotoxin Level
<0.10 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.
Activity
Measured by its ability to inhibit alkaline phosphatase production by MC3T3‑E1 mouse preosteoblast cells. The ED50 for this effect is 0.025-0.15 µg/mL in the presence of 30 ng/mL of Recombinant Human BMP‑4 (Catalog # 314-BP).
Source
Mouse myeloma cell line, NS0-derived mouse Gremlin protein
Lys25-Asp184, with a C-terminal 10-His tag
Accession #
N-terminal Sequence
Analysis
Lys25
Predicted Molecular Mass
19.6 kDa
SDS-PAGE
23-31 kDa, reducing conditions

Product Datasheets

Carrier Free

What does CF mean?

CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.

What formulation is right for me?

In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.

956-GR/CF

Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in Acetonitrile and TFA.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 250 μg/mL in sterile 4 mM HCl.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.

956-GR

Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in Acetonitrile and TFA with BSA as a carrier protein.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 250 μg/mL in sterile 4 mM HCl containing at least 0.1% human or bovine serum albumin.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Reconstitution Calculator

Reconstitution Calculator

The reconstitution calculator allows you to quickly calculate the volume of a reagent to reconstitute your vial. Simply enter the mass of reagent and the target concentration and the calculator will determine the rest.

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Background: Gremlin

Gremlin was identified in a Xenopus expression-cloning screen as a dorsalizing factor that can induce a secondary axis. A rat homolog, called Drm, was identified as a cDNA that was downregulated in v-mos transfected cells. Gremlin/Drm belongs to the DAN family of secreted glycoproteins that are BMP antagonists. Other members of the family include: cerberus, Dante, PRDC, caronte and DAN. DAN family members share a cysteine-rich domain that is structurally related to the cysteine-knot motif found in TGF-beta superfamily ligands. In vitro, Gremlin/Drm binds BMP-4 and BMP-2 indicating that it might interfere with BMP signaling. Gremlin/Drm acts as a BMP-2/4 antagonist in a variety of tissues and developmental processes including: Xenopus animal cap explants, chick limb bud outgrowth and chondrogenesis, murine lung branching morphogenesis, and osteogenic differentiation of mouse myoblasts and bone marrow stromal cells. In addition, expression of Gremlin/Drm has been shown to be downregulated in a wide range of human cancer cell lines. Mouse, human, chick and Xenopus homologs of Gremlin share over 80% amino acid identity. It is likely that various DAN family members and other BMP antagonists including Noggin, Chordin, Follistatin and TSG can selectively antagonize the activities of different subsets of TGF-beta superfamily ligands.

References
  1. Hsu, D.R. et al. (1998) Mol. Cell 1:673.
  2. Merino, R. et al. (1999) Development 126:5515.
  3. Shi, W. et al. (2001) Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. 280:L1030.
  4. Topol, L.Z. et al. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275:8785.
Entrez Gene IDs
26585 (Human); 23892 (Mouse)
Alternate Names
Cell proliferation-inducing gene 2 protein; CKTSF1B1gremlin 1, cysteine knot superfamily, homolog; Cysteine knot superfamily 1, BMP antagonist 1gremlin 1, cysteine knot superfamily, homolog (Xenopus laevis); DAN domain family member 2; DAND2; DAND2GREMLIN; Down-regulated in Mos-transformed cells protein; DRM; DRMMGC126660; GREM1; gremlin 1; gremlin 1-like protein; Gremlin; gremlin-1; IHG-2; Increased in high glucose protein 2; increased in high glucose-2; proliferation-inducing gene 2

Citations for Recombinant Mouse Gremlin Protein, CF

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

8 Citations: Showing 1 - 8
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  1. Morphological, molecular and FTIR spectroscopic analysis during the differentiation of kidney cells from pluripotent stem cells
    Authors: MM Mata-Miran, GJ Vazquez-Za, M Rojas-Lope, V Sanchez-Mo, DG Perez-Ishi, RJ Delgado-Ma
    Biol. Res., 2017;50(1):14.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  2. Loss of microRNA-7a2 induces hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and infertility
    Authors: K Ahmed, MP LaPierre, E Gasser, R Denzler, Y Yang, T Rülicke, J Kero, M Latreille, M Stoffel
    J. Clin. Invest, 2017;127(3):1061-1074.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  3. The Binding of the Bone Morphogenetic Protein Antagonist Gremlin to Kidney Heparan Sulfate: Such Binding is not Essential for BMP Antagonism
    Authors: Arnold Junior Tatsinkam
    Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol, 2016;0(0):.
    Applications: Bioassay
  4. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate-response element-binding protein mediates the proangiogenic or proinflammatory activity of gremlin.
    Authors: Corsini M, Moroni E, Ravelli C, Andres G, Grillo E, Ali I, Brazil D, Presta M, Mitola S
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol, 2014;34(1):136-45.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  5. A self-avoidance mechanism in patterning of the urinary collecting duct tree.
    Authors: Davies, Jamie A, Hohenstein, Peter, Chang, C-Hong, Berry, Rachel
    BMC Dev Biol, 2014;14(0):35.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: Bioassay
  6. A concentration-dependent endocytic trap and sink mechanism converts Bmper from an activator to an inhibitor of Bmp signaling.
    Authors: Kelley R, Ren R, Pi X, Wu Y, Moreno I, Willis M, Moser M, Ross M, Podkowa M, Attisano L, Patterson C
    J. Cell Biol., 2009;184(4):597-609.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  7. Bone morphogenic protein antagonist Drm/gremlin is a novel proangiogenic factor.
    Authors: Stabile H, Mitola S, Moroni E, Belleri M, Nicoli S, Coltrini D, Peri F, Pessi A, Orsatti L, Talamo F, Castronovo V, Waltregny D, Cotelli F, Ribatti D, Presta M
    Blood, 2007;109(5):1834-40.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  8. Fibroblast growth factor 2 modulates transforming growth factor beta signaling in mouse embryonic fibroblasts and human ESCs (hESCs) to support hESC self-renewal.
    Authors: Greber B, Lehrach H, Adjaye J
    Stem Cells, 2006;25(2):455-64.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay

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