Recombinant Mouse Gremlin Protein, CF

  (6 citations)     
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Product Details
Citations (6)
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  • Purity
    >90%, by SDS-PAGE visualized with Silver Staining and quantitative densitometry by Coomassie® Blue Staining.
  • Endotoxin Level
    <0.10 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.
  • Activity
    Measured by its ability to inhibit alkaline phosphatase production by MC3T3‑E1 mouse preosteoblast cells. The ED50 for this effect is 0.025-0.15 µg/mL in the presence of 30 ng/mL of Recombinant Human BMP‑4 (Catalog # 314-BP).
  • Source
    Mouse myeloma cell line, NS0-derived mouse Gremlin protein
    Lys25-Asp184, with a C-terminal 10-His tag
  • Accession #
  • N-terminal Sequence
    Analysis
    Lys25
  • Predicted Molecular Mass
    19.6 kDa
  • SDS-PAGE
    23-31 kDa, reducing conditions
Product Datasheets

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Carrier Free
What does CF mean?
CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.
What formulation is right for me?
In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.
956-GR/CF
 
956-GR
Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in Acetonitrile and TFA.
 
Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in Acetonitrile and TFA with BSA as a carrier protein.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 250 μg/mL in sterile 4 mM HCl.
 
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 250 μg/mL in sterile 4 mM HCl containing at least 0.1% human or bovine serum albumin.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
 
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
 
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Background: Gremlin

Gremlin was identified in a Xenopus expression-cloning screen as a dorsalizing factor that can induce a secondary axis. A rat homolog, called Drm, was identified as a cDNA that was downregulated in v-mos transfected cells. Gremlin/Drm belongs to the DAN family of secreted glycoproteins that are BMP antagonists. Other members of the family include: cerberus, Dante, PRDC, caronte and DAN. DAN family members share a cysteine-rich domain that is structurally related to the cysteine-knot motif found in TGF-beta superfamily ligands. In vitro, Gremlin/Drm binds BMP-4 and BMP-2 indicating that it might interfere with BMP signaling. Gremlin/Drm acts as a BMP-2/4 antagonist in a variety of tissues and developmental processes including: Xenopus animal cap explants, chick limb bud outgrowth and chondrogenesis, murine lung branching morphogenesis, and osteogenic differentiation of mouse myoblasts and bone marrow stromal cells. In addition, expression of Gremlin/Drm has been shown to be downregulated in a wide range of human cancer cell lines. Mouse, human, chick and Xenopus homologs of Gremlin share over 80% amino acid identity. It is likely that various DAN family members and other BMP antagonists including Noggin, Chordin, Follistatin and TSG can selectively antagonize the activities of different subsets of TGF-beta superfamily ligands.

  • References:
    1. Hsu, D.R. et al. (1998) Mol. Cell 1:673.
    2. Merino, R. et al. (1999) Development 126:5515.
    3. Shi, W. et al. (2001) Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. 280:L1030.
    4. Topol, L.Z. et al. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275:8785.
  • Entrez Gene IDs:
    26585 (Human); 23892 (Mouse)
  • Alternate Names:
    Cell proliferation-inducing gene 2 protein; CKTSF1B1gremlin 1, cysteine knot superfamily, homolog; Cysteine knot superfamily 1, BMP antagonist 1gremlin 1, cysteine knot superfamily, homolog (Xenopus laevis); DAN domain family member 2; DAND2; DAND2GREMLIN; Down-regulated in Mos-transformed cells protein; DRM; DRMMGC126660; GREM1; gremlin 1; gremlin 1-like protein; Gremlin; gremlin-1; IHG-2; Increased in high glucose protein 2; increased in high glucose-2; proliferation-inducing gene 2
Related Research Areas
Citations:

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

6 Citations: Showing 1 - 6
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Species
Applications
Sample Type
  1. Loss of microRNA-7a2 induces hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and infertility
    Authors: K Ahmed, MP LaPierre, E Gasser, R Denzler, Y Yang, T Rülicke, J Kero, M Latreille, M Stoffel
    J. Clin. Invest, 2017;127(3):1061-1074.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  2. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate-response element-binding protein mediates the proangiogenic or proinflammatory activity of gremlin.
    Authors: Corsini M, Moroni E, Ravelli C, Andres G, Grillo E, Ali I, Brazil D, Presta M, Mitola S
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol, 2014;34(1):136-45.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  3. A self-avoidance mechanism in patterning of the urinary collecting duct tree.
    Authors: Davies, Jamie A, Hohenstein, Peter, Chang, C-Hong, Berry, Rachel
    BMC Dev Biol, 2014;14(0):35.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Whole Tissue
    Application: Bioassay
  4. A concentration-dependent endocytic trap and sink mechanism converts Bmper from an activator to an inhibitor of Bmp signaling.
    Authors: Kelley R, Ren R, Pi X, Wu Y, Moreno I, Willis M, Moser M, Ross M, Podkowa M, Attisano L, Patterson C
    J. Cell Biol., 2009;184(4):597-609.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  5. Bone morphogenic protein antagonist Drm/gremlin is a novel proangiogenic factor.
    Authors: Stabile H, Mitola S, Moroni E, Belleri M, Nicoli S, Coltrini D, Peri F, Pessi A, Orsatti L, Talamo F, Castronovo V, Waltregny D, Cotelli F, Ribatti D, Presta M
    Blood, 2007;109(5):1834-40.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  6. Fibroblast growth factor 2 modulates transforming growth factor beta signaling in mouse embryonic fibroblasts and human ESCs (hESCs) to support hESC self-renewal.
    Authors: Greber B, Lehrach H, Adjaye J
    Stem Cells, 2006;25(2):455-64.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay

FAQs

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Primary Antibodies
Description Application Cat# Citations Images  

His Tag Antibody

WB , Simple Western , Flow , AP , CyTOF-ready MAB050 27  
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His Tag HRP-conjugated Antibody

WB , Simple Western MAB050H 3  
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His Tag APC-conjugated Antibody

ICFlow IC050A  
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His Tag Biotinylated Antibody

WB BAM050 4  
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His Tag PE-conjugated Antibody

ICFlow IC050P 2  
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His Tag Antibody

WB , Flow , AP MAB050R  
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His Tag Alexa Fluor® 488-conjugated Antibody

ICFlow IC050G  
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His Tag PerCP-conjugated Antibody

ICFlow IC050C  
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His Tag Alexa Fluor® 700-conjugated Antibody

ICFlow IC050N  
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Protein Purification Kits
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Histidine-tagged Protein Purification Resin

IP999 1
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