Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 BA.4/BA.5 S1 His-tag Protein, CF Summary
|Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 BA.4/BA.5 Spike S1 Subunit|
(Thr19Ile, Leu24del, Pro25del, Pro26del, Ala27Ser, His69del, Val70del, Gly142Asp, Val213Gly, Gly339Asp, Ser371Phe, Ser373Pro, Ser375Phe, Thr376Ala, Asp405Asn, Arg408Ser, Lys417Asn, Asn440Lys, Leu452Arg, Ser477Asn, Thr478Lys, Glu484Ala, Phe486Val, Gln498Arg, Asn501Tyr, Tyr505His, Asp614Gly, His655Tyr, Asn679Lys, Pro681His)
Accession # YP_009724390.1
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CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.
In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.
|Formulation||Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with Trehalose.|
|Reconstitution||Reconstitute at 250 μg/mL in PBS.|
|Shipping||The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.|
|Stability & Storage:||Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 BA.4/BA.5 Spike S1 Subunit His-tag Protein (Catalog # 11184-CV) binds Recombinant Human ACE-2 Fc Chimera (10544-ZN) in a functional ELISA.
2 μg/lane of Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 BA.4/BA.5 Spike S1 Subunit His-tag Protein (Catalog # 11184-CV) was resolved with SDS-PAGE under reducing (R) and non-reducing (NR) conditions and visualized by Coomassie® Blue staining, showing bands at 103-114 kDa.
Background: Spike S1 Subunit
SARS-CoV-2, which causes the global pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), belongs to a family of viruses known as coronaviruses that also include MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-1. Coronaviruses are commonly comprised of four structural proteins: Spike protein (S), Envelope protein (E), Membrane protein (M) and Nucleocapsid protein (N) (1). The SARS-CoV-2 S protein is a glycoprotein that mediates membrane fusion and viral entry. The S protein is homotrimeric, with each ~180-kDa monomer consisting of two subunits, S1 and S2 (2). In SARS-CoV-2, as with most coronaviruses, proteolytic cleavage of the S protein into S1 and S2 subunits is required for activation. The S1 subunit is focused on attachment of the protein to the host receptor while the S2 subunit is involved with cell fusion (3-5). Based on amino acid (aa) sequence homology, the SARS-CoV-2 S1 subunit has 65% identity with SARS-CoV-1 S1 subunit, but only 22% homology with the MERS S1 subunit. The S Protein of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, like the SARS-CoV-1 counterpart, binds a metallopeptidase, Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE-2), but with much higher affinity and faster binding kinetics through the receptor binding domain (RBD) located in the C-terminal region of S1 subunit (6). It has been demonstrated that the S Protein can invade host cells through the CD147/EMMPRIN receptor and mediate membrane fusion (7, 8). Polyclonal antibodies to the RBD of the SARS-CoV-2 protein have been shown to inhibit interaction with the ACE-2 receptor, confirming RBD as an attractive target for vaccinations or antiviral therapy (9). There is also promising work showing that the RBD may be used to detect presence of neutralizing antibodies present in a patient's bloodstream, consistent with developed immunity after exposure to the SARS-CoV-2 (10). Several emerging SARS-CoV-2 genomes have been identified including the Omicron, or B.1.1.529, variant. First identified in November 2021 in South Africa, the Omicron variant quickly became the predominant SARS-CoV-2 variant and is considered a variant of concern (VOC). The Omicron variant contains 32 mutations in the S protein, 3 to 4 times more than in other SARS-CoV-2 variants, that potentially affect viral fitness and transmissibility (11). Of these mutations,15 are located in the RBD domain and allow the Omicron variant to bind ACE-2 with greater affinity and, potentially, increased transmissibility (11, 12). Several additional mutations throughout the S protein have been shown or are predicted to enhance spike cleavage and could aid transmission (13-15). The study of the Omicron variant's impact on immune escape and reduced neutralization activity to monoclonal antibodies along with an increased risk of reinfection, even among vaccinated individuals, remains ongoing (16). The BA.4/BA.5 subvariant shows faster spreading rate than the original Omicron variant..
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- Okba, N. M. A. et al. (2020). Emerg. Infect. Dis. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2607.200841.
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- Lasek-Nesselquist, E. et al. (2021) medRxiv https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.03.10.21253285.
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- Callaway, E. and Ledford, H. (2021) Nature 600:197.
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