Human TDO2 Alexa Fluor® 350-conjugated Antibody

Tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase
Catalog # Availability Size / Price Qty
IC9768U-100UG
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Human TDO2 Alexa Fluor® 350-conjugated Antibody Summary

Species Reactivity
Human
Specificity
Detects human TDO2 in direct ELISAs.
Source
Monoclonal Mouse IgG2B Clone # 998604
Purification
Protein A or G purified from hybridoma culture supernatant
Immunogen
E. coli-derived human TDO2
Leu18-Phe388
Accession # P48775
Formulation
Supplied 0.2 mg/mL in a saline solution containing BSA and Sodium Azide.
Label
Alexa Fluor 350 (Excitation= 346 nm, Emission= 442 nm)

Applications

Recommended Concentration
Sample
Intracellular Staining by Flow Cytometry
0.25-1 µg/106 cells
Human A431 epidermoid carcinoma cell line fixed with paraformaldehyde and permeabilized with saponin

Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.

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Preparation and Storage

Shipping
The product is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage
Protect from light. Do not freeze.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, 2 to 8 °C as supplied.

Background: TDO2

Tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO2), a heme-containing cytosolic dioxygenase, forms a homo-tetrameric active molecule of approximately 190 kDa composed of 48 kDa monomers (1, 2). Human TDO2 shares 89% aa sequence identity with mouse TDO2. TDO2 is one of three proteins capable of catalyzing the first and rate‑limiting step of the L-kynurenine pathway (KP): oxidative cleavage of the essential amino acid L-tryptophan to form N‑formyl‑kynurenine (3). TDO2 is a cytosolic protein typically localized to the liver and brain, unlike the more ubiquitously expressed indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), yet it is responsible for ~90% of the primary route of catabolism of tryptophan through the KP (3). TDO2 is upregulated in extrahepatic tumors (4-6) and is consequently a target in cancer immunotherapy (7). TDO2 is a therapeutic target in brain disease such as schizophrenia, Alzheimers disease, multiple sclerosis and glioma (8-11) due to its role in the regulation of levels of critical biologically active downstream KP metabolites (3). Polymorphisms in the TDO2 gene have been implicated for a role in behavioural responses and autism (12,13).

References
  1. Lewis-Ballester, A. et al. (2016) Sci. Rep. 6:35169.
  2. Rafice, S.A. et al. (2009) Biochem. Soc. Trans. 37:408.
  3. Badawy, A. (2017) Int J. Tryptophan Res. 10:1.
  4. Pilotte, L. et al. (2012) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109:2497.
  5. D'Amato, N.C. et al. (2015) Cancer Res. 75:4651.
  6. Yu, C.P et al. (2017) Med. Oncol. 34:73.
  7. Platten, et al. (2015) Front. Immunol. 5:673.
  8. Breda, C. et al. (2016) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 113:5435.
  9. Yu, C.P. et al. (2016) Metab. Brain Dis. 31:737.
  10. Lanz. T.V. et al. (2017) Sci. Rep. 7:41271.
  11. Reus, G.Z. et al. (2018) Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry 81:55.
  12. Soichot, M. et al. (2013) Alcohol Alcohol 48:415.
  13. Nabi, R. et al. (2004) Am. J. Med. Genet. B. Neuropsychiatr. Genet. 125B:63.
Long Name
Tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase
Entrez Gene IDs
6999 (Human); 56720 (Mouse); 64206 (Rat)
Alternate Names
chky; TDO; TDO2; TDOTO; TO; TPH2EC 1.13.11.11; TRPO; TRPOtryptophanase; Tryptamin 2,3-dioxygenase; tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase; Tryptophan Oxygenase; Tryptophan Pyrrolase; Tryptophanase

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