Human TDO2 Antibody Summary
Accession # P48775
Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
TDO2 in Human Liver. TDO2 was detected in immersion fixed paraffin-embedded sections of human liver using Mouse Anti-Human TDO2 Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB9768) at 5 µg/mL for 1 hour at room temperature followed by incubation with the Anti-Mouse IgG VisUCyte™ HRP Polymer Antibody (Catalog # VC001). Before incubation with the primary antibody, tissue was subjected to heat-induced epitope retrieval using Antigen Retrieval Reagent-Basic (Catalog # CTS013). Tissue was stained using DAB (brown) and counterstained with hematoxylin (blue). Specific staining was localized to cytoplasm in hepatocytes. View our protocol for IHC Staining with VisUCyte HRP Polymer Detection Reagents.
Detection of TDO2 in A431 Human Cell Line by Flow Cytometry. A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cell line was stained with Mouse Anti-Human TDO2 Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB9768, filled histogram) or isotype control antibody (Catalog # MAB0041, open histogram), followed by Allophycocyanin-conjugated Anti-Mouse IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # F0101B). To facilitate intracellular staining, cells were fixed with paraformaldehyde and permeabilized with saponin. View our protocol for Staining Intracellular Molecules.
Preparation and Storage
- 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
- 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
- 6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO2), a heme-containing cytosolic dioxygenase, forms a homo-tetrameric active molecule of approximately 190 kDa composed of 48 kDa monomers (1, 2). Human TDO2 shares 89% aa sequence identity with mouse TDO2. TDO2 is one of three proteins capable of catalyzing the first and rate‑limiting step of the L-kynurenine pathway (KP): oxidative cleavage of the essential amino acid L-tryptophan to form N‑formyl‑kynurenine (3). TDO2 is a cytosolic protein typically localized to the liver and brain, unlike the more ubiquitously expressed indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), yet it is responsible for ~90% of the primary route of catabolism of tryptophan through the KP (3). TDO2 is upregulated in extrahepatic tumors (4-6) and is consequently a target in cancer immunotherapy (7). TDO2 is a therapeutic target in brain disease such as schizophrenia, Alzheimers disease, multiple sclerosis and glioma (8-11) due to its role in the regulation of levels of critical biologically active downstream KP metabolites (3). Polymorphisms in the TDO2 gene have been implicated for a role in behavioural responses and autism (12,13).
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- Badawy, A. (2017) Int J. Tryptophan Res. 10:1.
- Pilotte, L. et al. (2012) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109:2497.
- D'Amato, N.C. et al. (2015) Cancer Res. 75:4651.
- Yu, C.P et al. (2017) Med. Oncol. 34:73.
- Platten, et al. (2015) Front. Immunol. 5:673.
- Breda, C. et al. (2016) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 113:5435.
- Yu, C.P. et al. (2016) Metab. Brain Dis. 31:737.
- Lanz. T.V. et al. (2017) Sci. Rep. 7:41271.
- Reus, G.Z. et al. (2018) Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry 81:55.
- Soichot, M. et al. (2013) Alcohol Alcohol 48:415.
- Nabi, R. et al. (2004) Am. J. Med. Genet. B. Neuropsychiatr. Genet. 125B:63.
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