Recombinant Human CXCL1/GRO alpha Protein, CF

(20 citations)   
  • Purity
    >97%, by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions and visualized by silver stain.
  • Endotoxin Level
    <0.01 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.
  • Activity
    Measured by its ability to induce myeloperoxidase release from cytochalasin B-treated human neutrophils. Schröder, J.M. et al. (1987) J. Immunol. 139:3474. The ED50 for this effect is 0.15‑0.3 µg/mL. Measured by its ability to chemoattract BaF3 mouse pro‑B cells transfected with human CXCR2. The ED50 for this effect is 1‑4 ng/mL.
  • Source
    E. coli-derived Ala35-Asn107
  • Accession #
  • N-terminal Sequence
    Analysis
    Ala35
  • Predicted Molecular Mass
    7.9 kDa
Carrier Free
What does CF mean?
CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.
What formulation is right for me?
In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.
275-GR/CF
 
275-GR
Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in Acetonitrile and TFA.
Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in Acetonitrile and TFA with BSA as a carrier protein.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 100 μg/mL in sterile PBS.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 100 μg/mL in sterile PBS containing at least 0.1% human or bovine serum albumin.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Data Images
Recombinant Human CXCL1/GRO alpha (Catalog # 275-GR/CF) chemoattractsBaF3 mouse pro B cells transfected withhuman CXCR2. The ED50 for this effect is 1‑4 ng/mL.
Background: CXCL1/GRO alpha/KC/CINC-1
CXCL1, also known as KC, GRO alpha, and CINC-1, is an approximately 8 kDa proinflammatory chemokine that plays a key role in neutrophil migration and activation (1). Mature human CXCL1 shares 64% and 67% aa sequence identity with mouse and rat CXCL1, respectively (2). It is produced by many cell types in inflammatory sites and during chronic inflammatory diseases (1). CXCL1 can associate into bioactive dimers and primarily signals through CXCR2/IL-8 RB but can also bind with lower affinity to CXCR2/IL-8 RA (3-5). It induces neutrophil migration, extravasation, respiratory burst, and degranulation and also induces T cells to produce proinflammatory IL-17 (4, 6, 7). CXCL1 additionally binds to Syndecan-1 on epithelial cells which acts as a sink for CXCL1 activity until Syndecan-1 cleavage by MMP-7 (8). CXCL1 is up-regulated in spinal cord astrocytes by inflammatory stimuli or tumor cell injection, and it exacerbates pain sensation by potentiating excitatory NMDA neurotransmission (9, 10). In the circulatory system, CXCL1 interacts with CXCR2 on endothelial cells to promote lymphatic tube formation and angiogenesis (11, 12). It promotes the hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocytes resulting in cartilage matrix deposition, calcification, and remodeling (13). It interacts with both CXCR1 and CXCR2 on adipose stromal cells and promotes their recruitment to prostate tumors in obese patients (14). It also binds CXCR2 on ovarian cancer cells, leading to cleavage of cell surface HB-EGF, transactivation of EGF R, and cell proliferation (15).
  • References:
    1. Strieter, R.M. et al. (2005) Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 16:593.
    2. Baker, N.E. et al. (1990) Nucl. Acids Res. 18:6453.
    3. Sawant, K.V. et al. (2015) J. Innate Immun. 7:647.
    4. Geiser, T. et al. (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268:15419.
    5. Ahuja, S.K. and P.M. Murphy (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271:20545.
    6. Jin, L. et al. (2014) J. Immunol. 193:3549.
    7. De Filippo, K. et al. (2013) Blood 121:4930.
    8. Gill, S.E. et al. (2016) Am. J. Respir. Cell. Mol. Biol. PMID 26934670.
    9. Cao, D.-L. et al. (2014) Exp. Neurol. 261:328.
    10. Xu, J. et al. (2014) J. Neuroinflamm. 11:38.
    11. Xu, J. et al. (2012) Int. J. Cancer 130:787.
    12. Miyake, M. et al. (2013) Lab. Invest. 93:768.
    13. Merz, D. et al. (2003) J. Immunol. 171:4406.
    14. Zhang, T. et al. (2016) Nat. Commun. 7:11674.
    15. Bolitho, C. et al. (2010) Endocr. Relat. Cancer 17:929.
  • Entrez Gene IDs:
    2919 (Human); 14825 (Mouse); 81503 (Rat)
  • Alternate Names:
    CINC1; CINC-1; CXCL1; GRO alpha; KC; MGSA-alpha
Related Research Areas
Citations:

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

20 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
Filter your results:

Species
Applications
Sample Type
  1. Islet inflammation and ductal proliferation may be linked to increased pancreatitis risk in type 2 diabetes
    Authors: B Schludi, ASM Moin, C Montemurro, T Gurlo, AV Matveyenko, D Kirakossia, DW Dawson, SM Dry, PC Butler, AE Butler
    JCI Insight, 2017;2(13):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  2. Early dissemination seeds metastasis in breast cancer
    Nature, 2016;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  3. Senescent peritoneal mesothelium creates a niche for ovarian cancer metastases
    Cell Death Dis, 2016;7(12):e2565.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  4. P2RX7 sensitizes Mac-1/ICAM-1-dependent leukocyte-endothelial adhesion and promotes neurovascular injury during septic encephalopathy.
    Authors: Wang H, Hong L, Huang J, Jiang Q, Tao R, Tan C, Lu N, Wang C, Ahmed M, Lu Y, Liu Z, Shi W, Lai E, Wilcox C, Han F
    Cell Res, 2015;25(6):674-90.
  5. CXCR2 and its related ligands play a novel role in supporting the pluripotency and proliferation of human pluripotent stem cells.
    Authors: Jung J, Lee S, Kim J, Lee S, Sung H, An J, Park Y, Kim B
    Stem Cells Dev, 2015;24(8):948-61.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  6. Stromal cells positively and negatively modulate the growth of cancer cells: stimulation via the PGE2-TNFalpha-IL-6 pathway and inhibition via secreted GAPDH-E-cadherin interaction.
    Authors: Kawada M, Inoue H, Ohba S, Yoshida J, Masuda T, Yamasaki M, Usami I, Sakamoto S, Abe H, Watanabe T, Yamori T, Shibasaki M, Nomoto A
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(3):e0119415.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  7. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibition restores neutrophil accuracy in the elderly: toward targeted treatments for immunosenescence.
    Authors: Sapey E, Greenwood H, Walton G, Mann E, Love A, Aaronson N, Insall R, Stockley R, Lord J
    Blood, 2014;123(2):239-48.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  8. Phosphoproteomic profiling reveals IL6-mediated paracrine signaling within the Ewing sarcoma family of tumors.
    Authors: Anderson J, Titz B, Akiyama R, Komisopoulou E, Park A, Tap W, Graeber T, Denny C
    Mol Cancer Res, 2014;12(12):1740-54.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  9. CXCR2-driven ovarian cancer progression involves upregulation of proinflammatory chemokines by potentiating NF-kappaB activation via EGFR-transactivated Akt signaling.
    Authors: Dong Y, Kabir S, Lee E, Son D
    PLoS ONE, 2013;8(12):e83789.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  10. Widespread potential for growth-factor-driven resistance to anticancer kinase inhibitors.
    Authors: Wilson TR, Fridlyand J, Yan Y, Penuel E, Burton L, Chan E, Peng J, Lin E, Wang Y, Sosman J, Ribas A, Li J, Moffat J, Sutherlin DP, Koeppen H, Merchant M, Neve R, Settleman J
    Nature, 2012;487(7408):505-9.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  11. Primary human acute myelogenous leukemia cells release matrix metalloproteases and their inhibitors: release profile and pharmacological modulation.
    Authors: Reikvam H, Hatfield KJ, Oyan AM, Kalland KH, Kittang AO, Bruserud O
    Eur. J. Haematol., 2010;84(3):239-51.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  12. Identifying serological biomarkers of hepatocellular carcinoma using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectroscopy.
    Authors: Wu FX, Wang Q, Zhang ZM, Huang S, Yuan WP, Liu JY, Ban KC, Zhao YN
    Cancer Lett., 2009;279(2):163-70.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Serum
    Application: ELISA development
  13. The inflammatory microenvironment of the aging prostate facilitates cellular proliferation and hypertrophy.
    Authors: Begley LA, Kasina S, Macdonald J, Macoska JA
    Cytokine, 2008;43(2):194-9.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  14. S100A11, an dual mediator for growth regulation of human keratinocytes.
    Authors: Sakaguchi M, Sonegawa H, Murata H, Kitazoe M, Futami J, Kataoka K, Yamada H, Huh NH
    Mol. Biol. Cell, 2007;19(1):78-85.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  15. IL-1beta-stimulated activation of ERK1/2 and p38alpha MAPK mediates the transcriptional up-regulation of IL-6, IL-8 and GRO-alpha in HeLa cells.
    Authors: Yang HT, Cohen P, Rousseau S
    Cell. Signal., 2007;20(2):375-80.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  16. Normalizing the bone marrow microenvironment with p38 inhibitor reduces multiple myeloma cell proliferation and adhesion and suppresses osteoclast formation.
    Authors: Nguyen AN, Stebbins EG, Henson M, O&amp;amp;apos;Young G, Choi SJ, Quon D, Damm D, Reddy M, Ma JY, Haghnazari E, Kapoun AM, Medicherla S, Protter A, Schreiner GF, Kurihara N, Anderson J, Roodman GD, Navas TA, Higgins LS
    Exp. Cell Res., 2006;312(10):1909-23.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  17. Novel antiviral activity of chemokines.
    Authors: Nakayama T, Shirane J, Hieshima K, Shibano M, Watanabe M, Jin Z, Nagakubo D, Saito T, Shimomura Y, Yoshie O
    Virology, 2006;350(2):484-92.
    Species: Virus
    Sample Type: Virus
    Application: Binding Assay
  18. Human CXCR2 (hCXCR2) takes over functionalities of its murine homolog in hCXCR2 knockin mice.
    Authors: Mihara K, Smit MJ, Krajnc-Franken M, Gossen J, Rooseboom M, Dokter W
    Eur. J. Immunol., 2005;35(9):2573-82.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: In Vivo
    Application: In Vivo
  19. Specific CXC but not CC chemokines cause elevated monocyte migration in COPD: a role for CXCR2.
    Authors: Traves SL, Smith SJ, Barnes PJ, Donnelly LE
    J. Leukoc. Biol., 2004;76(2):441-50.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  20. Imbalance in the expression of CXC chemokines correlates with bronchoalveolar lavage fluid angiogenic activity and procollagen levels in acute respiratory distress syndrome.
    Authors: Keane MP, Donnelly SC, Belperio JA, Goodman RB, Dy M, Burdick MD, Fishbein MC, Strieter RM
    J. Immunol., 2002;169(11):6515-21.
    Species: N/A
    Sample Type: N/A
    Application: ELISA Standard
Expand to show all 20 Citations

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