Chemokine Superfamily Pathway: Human/Mouse Ligand-Receptor Interactions

Click on one of the chemokine subfamilies below to see the specific chemokines that belong to each group, their receptors, and the different immune cell types that have been shown to express the chemokine receptors.

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CCR1
CCR1
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CCR2
(A or B)
CCR2
(A or B)
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CCR3
CCR3
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CCR4
CCR4
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CCR5
CCR5
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CCR6
CCR6
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CCR7
CCR7
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CCR8
CCR8
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CCR9
CCR9
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CCR10
CCR10
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CCR11
CCR11
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PITPNM3
PITPNM3
CCRL2/
CRAM-A/B
CCRL2/
CRAM-A/B
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CCRL2/
LCCR
CCRL2/
LCCR
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D6
D6
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XCR1
XCR1
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CX3CR1
CX3CR1
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CXCR1
CXCR1
CXCR2
CXCR2
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CXCR3
CXCR3
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CXCR3B
CXCR3B
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CXCR4
CXCR4
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CXCR5
CXCR5
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CXCR6
CXCR6
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CXCR7
CXCR7
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Unknown
Unknown
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DARC
DARC
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H: CCL3-5, 7, 8, 13-16, 23, CCL3L1,
CCL3L3, CCL4L1, CCL4L2
M: CCL3-7, 9/10
H: CCL3-5, 7, 8, 13-16, 23, CCL3L1,
CCL3L3, CCL4L1, CCL4L2
M: CCL3-7, 9/10
H: CCL2, 7, 8, 13, 16
M: CCL2, 7, 12
H: CCL2, 7, 8, 13, 16
M: CCL2, 7, 12
H: CCL5, 7, 8, 11, 13, 14, 15,
24, 26, 28, CCL3L1, CCL3L3
M: CCL5, 7, 9/10, 11, 24
H: CCL5, 7, 8, 11, 13, 14, 15,
24, 26, 28, CCL3L1, CCL3L3
M: CCL5, 7, 9/10, 11, 24
H: CCL2, 3, 5, 17, 22
M: CCL2, 3, 5, 17, 22
H: CCL2, 3, 5, 17, 22
M: CCL2, 3, 5, 17, 22
H: CCL3-5, 8, 11, 13, 14, 16, CCL3L1,
CCL3L3, CCL4L1, CCL4L2
M: CCL3-5
H: CCL3-5, 8, 11, 13, 14, 16, CCL3L1,
CCL3L3, CCL4L1, CCL4L2
M: CCL3-5
H: CCL20
M: CCL20
H: CCL20
M: CCL20
H: CCL19, 21
M: CCL19, 21
H: CCL19, 21
M: CCL19, 21
H: CCL1, 4, 16, 17, 18
M: CCL1, 8
H: CCL1, 4, 16, 17, 18
M: CCL1, 8
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H: CCL25
M: CCL25
H: CCL25
M: CCL25
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H: CCL27, 28
M: CCL27, 28
H: CCL27, 28
M: CCL27, 28
H: CCL2, 8, 13, 19, 21, 25
M: CCL19, 21, 25
H: CCL2, 8, 13, 19, 21, 25
M: CCL19, 21, 25
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H: CCL18
H: CCL18
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H: CCL19
H: CCL19
M: CCL19
M: CCL19
H: CCL2-5, 7, 8, 11, 13, 14, 17, 22, CCL3L1
M: CCL2, 3
H: CCL2-5, 7, 8, 11, 13, 14, 17, 22, CCL3L1
M: CCL2, 3
H: XCL1, 2
M: XCL1
H: XCL1, 2
M: XCL1
H: CCL26
H: CCL26
H: CX3CL1
M: CX3CL1
H: CX3CL1
M: CX3CL1
H: CXCL6-8
M: CXCL7, LIX
H: CXCL6-8
M: CXCL7, LIX
H: CXCL1-3, 5-8
M: CXCL1-3, 7, LIX
H: CXCL1-3, 5-8
M: CXCL1-3, 7, LIX
H: CXCL4, 9-11, 13, CXCL4L1
M: CXCL4, 9-11
H: CXCL4, 9-11, 13, CXCL4L1
M: CXCL4, 9-11
H: CXCL4, 9-11, CXCL4L1
H: CXCL4, 9-11, CXCL4L1
H: CXCL12
M: CXCL12
H: CXCL12
M: CXCL12
H: CXCL13
M: CXCL13
H: CXCL13
M: CXCL13
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H: CXCL16
M: CXCL16
H: CXCL16
M: CXCL16
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H: CXCL11, 12
M: CXCL11, 12
H: CXCL11, 12
M: CXCL11, 12
H: CXCL14, 17
M: CXCL14, 17
H: CXCL14, 17
M: CXCL14, 17
M: CXCL15
M: CXCL15
H: CCL1, 2, 5, 7, 8, 11, 13, 14, 16-18
M: CCL2, 11
H: CCL1, 2, 5, 7, 8, 11, 13, 14, 16-18
M: CCL2, 11
H: CXCL1-3, 5, 6, 8
M: CXCL1, 2, LIX
H: CXCL1-3, 5, 6, 8
M: CXCL1, 2, LIX
H: CXCL4, 9-11, 13
H: CXCL4, 9-11, 13
ReceptorImmune Cell Expression
XCR1B Cells, Dendritic Cells, Natural Killer Cells, Neutrophils, T Cells
Receptor Immune Cell Expression
CCR1 Dendritic Cells, Eosinophils, Monocytes, Natural Killer Cells, Memory T Cells
CCR2 (A or B) Basophils, Immature Dendritic Cells, Monocytes, Natural Killer Cells, Memory T Cells, Activated T Cells
CCR3 Basophils, Eosinophils, Mast Cells, Monocytes, Platelets, Th2 Cells, Memory T Cells
CCR4 Basophils, Dendritic Cells, Eosinophils, Macrophages, Monocytes, Platelets, gamma delta T Cells, Regulatory T Cells, Th2 Cells, Th17 Cells, Th22 Cells, Memory T Cells
CCR5 Dendritic Cells, Monocytes, Natural Killer Cells, Th1 Cells, Memory T Cells
CCR6 B Cells, Dendritic Cells, Lymphoid Tissue-inducer Cells, gamma delta T Cells, Th17 Cells, Memory T Cells
CCR7 B Cells, Dendritic Cells, Neutrophils, Naïve T Cells, Memory T Cells
CCR8 Dendritic Cells, Eosinophils, Monocytes, Regulatory T Cells, Th2 Cells, Memory T Cells
CCR9 Macrophages, Monocytes, Plasma Cells, Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells, Memory T Cells
CCR10 Plasma Cells, Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells, gamma delta T Cells, Memory T Cells
CCR11 Not yet shown
CCRL2/CRAM-A/B B Cells, Dendritic Cells, Monocytes, Natural Killer Cells, Neutrophils, T Cells
CCRL2/LCCR Dendritic Cells, Macrophages, Mast Cells
D6 B Cells, Dendritic Cells, Monocytes
DARC Not yet shown
PITPNM3 Not yet shown
Human CCL26 has also been shown to bind CX3CR1
Receptor Immune Cell Expression
CXCR1 Granulocytes, Mast Cells, Monocytes, CD56+, Natural Killer Cells, Neutrophils, CD8+ T Cells
CXCR2 Granulocytes, Mast Cells, Monocytes, CD56+, Natural Killer Cells, Neutrophils, CD8+ T Cells
DARC Not yet shown
Receptor Immune Cell Expression
CXCR3 Activated B Cells, Kupffer Cells, Mast Cells, Activated Natural Killer Cells, CD8+ T Cells, Th1 Cells, Memory T Cells
CXCR3B Not yet shown
CXCR4 B Cells, Basophils, Dendritic Cells, Eosinophils, Mast Cells, Monocytes, Natural Killer Cells, Neutrophils, Naïve T Cells, Memory T Cells
CXCR5 B Cells, Dendritic Cells, gamma delta T Cells, Follicular Helper T Cells
CXCR6 Natural Killer Cells, Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils, CD8+ T Cells, Memory T Cells
CXCR7 B Cells, Monocytes, Neutrophils
DARC Not yet shown
ReceptorImmune Cell Expression
CX3CR1Macrophages, Monocytes, Natural Killer Cells, Platelets, Memory T Cells

Overview of Chemokine Superfamily: Human/Mouse Ligand-Receptor Interactions

Chemokines are small cell surface-localized or secreted chemotactic cytokines that bind to and activate specific G protein-coupled chemokine receptors. Most chemokines have at least four conserved N-terminal cysteine residues that form two intramolecular disulfide bonds. Four chemokine subfamilies (CXC, CC, C, and CX3C) have been defined based upon the placement of the first two cysteine residues. The CXC chemokine subfamily is characterized by two cysteine residues separated by one amino acid. Within this subfamily, two CXC classes are further defined by the presence or absence of an ELR motif sequence. ELR- CXC chemokines act as chemoattractants for lymphocytes, while ELR+ CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils. Additionally, CXC chemokines can mediate angiogenesis. The CC chemokine subfamily is defined by two adjacent cysteine residues. CC chemokines induce inflammatory responses via regulation of monocyte, macrophage, mast cell, and T cell migration. C chemokines are characterized by a single cysteine residue and are constitutively expressed in the thymus where they regulate T cell differentiation. The CX3C chemokine subfamily is defined by two cysteine residues separated by three amino acids. Cell surface-localized CX3CL1/Fractalkine mediates leukocyte adhesion, while soluble CX3CL1/Fractalkine is chemotactic for leukocytes. CX3CL1/Fractalkine is also a critical regulator of microglia-neuron communication during neural development.

While chemokine receptors generally bind only one subfamily of chemokines, within those subfamilies, most chemokines display promiscuous receptor binding patterns. The redundancy of chemokine ligand-receptor binding may ensure robust signaling. In addition, promiscuous binding and non-signaling chemokine receptors offer mechanisms by which chemokine signaling can be regulated by either subtle differences in receptor signaling or differences in ligand-receptor expression patterns. Select chemokine ligands and receptors are implicated in HIV infection and persistence, while aberrant chemokine expression and signaling is associated with pathological conditions including inflammatory diseases and cancer.

To learn more, please visit our Chemokines and Receptors Research Area.

Chemokine Superfamily Pathway: Human/Mouse Ligand-Receptor Interactions background image 1