Recombinant Human Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase/DLD, CF Summary
Accession # P09622
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CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.
In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.
|Formulation||Supplied as a 0.2 μm filtered solution in Sodium Phosphate and Sucrose.|
|Shipping||The product is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.|
|Stability & Storage:||Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
- Assay Buffer: 50 mM Sodium Phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 1 mg/mL BSA, pH 5.5
- Recombinant Human Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase/DLD (rhDLD) (Catalog # 8646-DH)
- NADH (Sigma, Catalog # N8129), 20 mM stock in 0.1 M Sodium Borate, pH 9.0
- NAD (Sigma, Catalog # N6522), 100 mM stock in deionized water
- (±)-alpha -Lipoic acid (Sigma, Catalog # T1395), 20 mM stock in 95% Ethanol
- 96-well Clear Plate (Catalog # DY990)
- Plate Reader (Model: SpectraMax Plus by Molecular Devices) or equivalent
- Create a Substrate Mixture containing 0.4 mM NADH, 0.2 mM NAD and 2 mM Lipoic Acid in Assay Buffer.
- Incubate Substrate Mixture at room temperature for 5 minutes in the dark.
- Dilute rhDLD to 2 µg/mL in Assay Buffer.
- Load 50 µL of 2 µg/mL rhDLD in a plate, and start the reaction by adding 50 µL of Substrate Mixture. Include a Substrate Blank containing 50 µL Assay Buffer and 50 µL of Substrate Mixture.
- Read plate in kinetic mode for 5 minutes at an absorbance of 340 nm.
- Calculate specific activity:
Specific Activity (pmol/min/µg) =
|Adjusted Vmax* (OD/min) x -1 x well volume (L) x 1012 pmol/mol|
|ext. coeff** (M-1cm-1) x path corr.*** (cm) x amount of enzyme (µg)|
*Adjusted for Substrate Blank
** Using the extinction coefficient 6220 M-1cm-1
*** Using the path correction 0.32 cm
Note: the output of many spectrophotometers is in mOD
- rhDLD: 0.1 µg
- NADH: 0.2 mM
- NAD: 0.1 mM
- Lipoic Acid: 1 mM
Background: Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase/DLD
Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLD), also known as LADH, is an NAD-dependent oxidoreductase in the mitochondrial matrix (1). DLD serves as the E3 subunit of four mitochondrial enzyme complexes: pyruvate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, branched chain alpha-ketotacid dehydrogenase, and the glycine cleavage system (2, 3). It is active as a 120 kDa dimer that catalyzes oxidation within these enzyme complexes. Several mutations of human DLD have been described, some of which contribute to the loss of respiratory function during oxidative stress (4, 5). DLD mutations located at the interface between dimer subunits can impair dimer formation (5, 6). The involvement of DLD in the regulation of lipid peroxidation and lactate metabolism is important for mouse hippocampal neuroblast proliferation and hamster sperm capacitation, respectively (7, 8). DLD polymorphisms in insects can increase their resistance to the pesticide phosphine gas, while they can increase the sensitivity to arsenite in the nematode C. elegans (9). Mature human DLD shares 95-96% amino acid (aa) sequence identity with hamster, mouse, and rat DLD. Alternative splicing generates additional human DLD isoforms that lack the N-terminal 99 aa or carry a deletion of aa 147-194.
- Brand, M.D. (2010) Exp. Gerontol. 45:466.
- Johnson, M.T. et al. (1997) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94:14512.
- Sundquist, A.R. and R.C. Fahey (1988) J. Bacteriol. 170:3459.
- Ambrus, A. et al. (2011) Hum. Mol. Genet. 20:2984.
- Vaubel, R.A. et al. (2011) J. Biol. Chem. 286:40232.
- Babady, N.E. et al. (2007) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104:6158.
- Calingasan, N.Y. et al. (2008) Neuroscience 153:986.
- Panneerdoss, S. et al. (2012) J. Androl. 33:699.
- Schlipalius, D.I. et al. (2012) Science 338:807.
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