Recombinant Human Epimorphin/Syntaxin 2 Protein, CF Summary
The ED50 for this effect is 0.3-1.2 μg/mL.
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CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.
In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.
|Formulation||Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS and DTT.|
|Reconstitution||Reconstitute at 250 μg/mL in PBS.|
|Shipping||The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.|
|Stability & Storage:||Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Background: Epimorphin/Syntaxin 2
Epimorphin (EPIM), also known as syntaxin 2 (STX2), is a type IV transmembrane protein that is a member of the syntaxin family of t‑SNARE (target‑Soluble NSF Attachment REceptor) membrane fusion proteins (1 ‑ 4). Intracellular Epimorphin functions as a vesicle fusion protein, but extracellular forms that are active in morphogenesis are also found. Human Epimorphin cDNA encodes 289 amino acids (aa) including a coiled‑coil domain (aa 35 ‑ 101), a potential cell‑recognition sequence (aa 105 ‑ 123), a sequence important for membrane transduction (aa 141 ‑ 150), a t‑SNARE domain (aa 191 ‑ 252), and a C‑terminal transmembrane domain (aa 265 ‑ 288) (1 ‑ 4). Within aa 1 ‑ 188, human Epimorphin shares 89%, 88%, 94% and 95% aa sequence homology with mouse, rat, bovine and porcine Epimorphin, respectively. Potential isoforms of 287 and 277 aa show C‑terminal substitutions that do and do not contain hydrophobic sequences, respectively (1). Epimorphin has no signal sequence, but cell stress or Ca2+ influx induces plasma membrane crossing, with the assistance of annexin A2 and synapatotagmin‑1 (5). A soluble, extracellular 30 kDa form of Epimorphin is produced from the membrane–associated 34 kDa form by cleavage between E245 and H246 (2, 5 ‑ 7). Intracellular 70 kDa and 150 kDa complexes are presumed to be dimers and tetramers, respectively (1, 2, 6). Epimorphin produced by mesenchymal cells influences morphogenesis of epithelia in the breast, kidney, intestine, lung, pancreas, liver, skin and intestines (2, 4, 5). For cells such as lung, mammary or pancreatic epithelia, soluble Epimorphin promotes tubulogenesis or hollow sphere formation in vitro, while epithelia plated on Epimorphin or Epimorphin‑producing cells exhibit alpha v integrin‑dependent adhesion and branching morphogenesis (2 ‑ 8). Mice genetically lacking Epimorphin are sterile due to abnormal spermatogenesis and testicular development (9, 10). Both endogenous and exogenous Epimorphin are shown to protect cells from oxidative stress (11, 12).
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- Chen, C.S. et al. (2009) J. Biol. Chem. 284:6877.
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- Akiyama, K. et al. (2008) J. Reprod. Dev. 54:122.
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- Kinoshita, N. et al. (2011) J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 26:201.
- Iizuka, M. et al. (2007) Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 292:G39.
Citation for Recombinant Human Epimorphin/Syntaxin 2 Protein, CF
R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.
1 Citation: Showing 1 - 1
Epimorphin alters the inhibitory effects of SOX9 on Mmp13 in activated hepatic stellate cells.
Authors: Pritchett J, Athwal V, Harvey E, Martin K, Llewellyn J, Ireland P, Nicolaides A, Humphries M, Bobola N, Hanley N, Piper Hanley K
PLoS ONE, 2014;9(6):e100091.
Sample Types: Whole Cells
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