Recombinant Human FGL2 His-tag Protein, CF Summary
The ED50 for this effect is 1-8 μg/mL.
Asn24-Pro439, with a C-terminal 6-His tag
CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.
In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.
|Formulation||Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with Trehalose.|
|Reconstitution||Reconstitute at 500 μg/mL in PBS.|
|Shipping||The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.|
|Stability & Storage:||Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Recombinant Human FGL2 His-tag (Catalog # 10303-FL) inhibits anti-CD3-induced proliferation of stimulated human T cells. The ED50 for this effect is 1-8 μg/mL.
FGL2 (fibrinogen-like protein 2), also called fibroleukin, is a 64-70 kDa secreted glycoprotein of the Fibrinogen-like superfamily. It has prothrombinase activity and also promotes T regulatory (Treg) activity (1-6). The human FGL2 gene encodes a 439 amino acid (aa) protein that contains a 23 aa signal sequence and a 416 aa mature sequence with a coiled-coil region and a fibronectin C-terminal homology domain or FRED (1, 2). A 260-280 kDa FGL2 complex is thought to be a tetramer formed by covalent disulfide linkage of dimers that are associated via coiled-coil interactions (2, 3). Mature human FGL2 shares 79% aa identity with mouse and rat FGL2. FGL2 appears to have two modes of action. One mode involves its prothrombinase activity, which requires calcium and acidic phospholipids (4). This mode is thought to be active during hepatitis viral infections when FGL2, produced by macrophages in response to IFN-gamma, induces hepatic apoptosis and fibrin deposition (7). In addition, FGL2 produced by endothelial cells in response to TNF-alpha within cardiac xenografts or allografts promotes coagulation during acute vascular rejection (7-9). A second mode of action involves soluble (not phospholipid-associated) FGL2 and is independent of prothrombinase activity (2). Soluble FGL2 is required for Treg function, and directly suppresses DC, T, and B cell immune reactivity; consequently, some FGL2-deficent mice develop autoimmune glomerulonephritis (5, 6). In vitro, soluble FGL2 can skew T cell polarization toward Th2 and inhibit proliferation of stimulated T cells and maturation of DC (6). In pregnancy, fetal trophoblast cells secrete FGL2. The immune suppressive mode of FGL2 may prevent early fetal loss; however, the procoagulant mode is thought to mediate infection-triggered abortion (10). In the central nervous system (CNS), FGL2 was shown to be highly expressed in glioma stem cells and primary glioblastoma cells and may serve as a critical immune oncology target (11).
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- Olson, G. E. et al. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279:51266.
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- Mendicino, M. et al. (2005) Circulation 112:248.
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- Clark, D. A. et al. (2004) Mol. Hum. Reprod. 10:99.
- Yan J. et al. (2019) Nat Commun. 10:448.
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