Recombinant Human Follistatin-like 1 Protein, CF

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R&D Systems Recombinant Proteins and Enzymes
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Recombinant Human Follistatin-like 1 Protein, CF Summary

Product Specifications

>95%, by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions and visualized by silver stain
Endotoxin Level
<0.10 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.
Measured by its binding ability in a functional ELISA. When Recombinant Human Follistatin‑like 1/FSTL1 is coated at 2 μg/mL (100 μL/well), the concentration of recombinant human BMP-4 that produces 50% of the optimal binding response is found to be approximately 10-60 ng/mL.
Mouse myeloma cell line, NS0-derived human Follistatin-like 1/FSTL1 protein
Met1-Ile308, with a C-terminal Asp and 10-His tag
Accession #
N-terminal Sequence
Predicted Molecular Mass
36.4 kDa
45-50 kDa, reducing conditions

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Carrier Free

What does CF mean?

CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.

What formulation is right for me?

In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.


Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 200 μg/mL in PBS.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
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Background: Follistatin-like 1/FSTL1

Follistatin‑like 1 (FSL1 or FSTL1), also known as FRP (follistatin‑related protein), Flik (follistatin‑like), and TSC‑36 (TGF‑ beta 1‑stimulated clone 36), is a secreted 45‑55 kDa extracellular glycoprotein belonging to the BM‑40/SPARC/Osteonectin family (1‑3). The human FSL‑1 cDNA encodes 308 amino acids (aa), including a 20 aa signal sequence, a cysteine‑rich Follistatin (EGF- and kazal‑like) domain, two apparently non‑functional EF‑hand calcium‑binding motifs, and a von Willebrand Factor C homology domain (1, 3). Mature human FSL1 shares 94%, 95%, 98% and 99% aa identity with mouse, rat, bovine and equine FSL1, respectively. FSL1 was first identified as a TGF‑ beta ‑induced protein from a mouse osteoblast cell line (4). It is ubiquitously expressed in early mouse development, but is mainly mesenchymal later in development (5). In vitro, FSTL1 interacts directly with BMP‑4, while in vivo, it regulates BMP‑4 signaling during normal lung development, as demonstrated by lethal respiratory failure in mice deleted for FSTL1 (6). In humans, FSL1 is a common rheumatoid arthritis auto‑antigen (2). It is reported to be either pro‑inflammatory due to promoting inflammatory cytokine secretion, or to prevent autoimmune arthritis by inhibiting matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and prostaglandin expression (7‑10). In muscle and heart, it appears to be protective and promotes endothelial cell functions such as revascularization after ischemia, probably due to promoting expression and activation of the protein kinase AKT1 (11, 12). Cardiac and circulating FSL1 is generally increased in conditions such as heart failure and acute coronary syndrome (12‑14). FSL1 also appears to be a tumor suppressor, showing down‑regulated expression in many human cancers (4, 15, 16). In vitro, it slows proliferation and MMP‑dependent migration, and increases FAS‑dependent apoptosis of tumor cell lines (15).

  1. Zwijsen, A. et al. (1994) Eur. J. Biochem. 225:937.
  2. Tanaka, M. et al. (1998) Int. Immunol. 10:1305.
  3. Hambrook, H.O. et al. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279:11727.
  4. Shibanuma, M. et al. (1993) Eur. J. Biochem. 217:13.
  5. Adams, D. et al. (2007) Gene Expr. Patterns 7:491.
  6. Geng, Y et al. (2011) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108:7058.
  7. Clutter, S.D. et al. (2009) J. Immunol. 182:234.
  8. Miyamae, T. et al. (2006) J. Immunol. 177:4758.
  9. Kawabata, D. et al. (2004) Arthritis Rheum. 50:660.
  10. Tanaka, M. et al. (2003) Int. Immunol. 15:71.
  11. Ouchi, N. et al. (2008) J. Biol. Chem. 283:32802.
  12. Oshima, Y. et al. (2008) Circulation 117:3099.
  13. Lara-Pezzi, E. et al. (2008) Endocrinology 149:5822.
  14. Widera, C. et al. (2009) Clin. Chem. 55:1794.
  15. Chan, Q.K. et al. (2009) Carcinogenesis 30:114.
  16. Mashimo, J. et al. (1997) Cancer Lett. 113:213.
Entrez Gene IDs
11167 (Human); 14314 (Mouse); 79210 (Rat)
Alternate Names
Flik; FLJ50214; Follistatin-like 1; Follistatin-like protein 1; follistatin-related protein 1; Follistatin-related Protein; FRP; FRPFLJ52277; FSL1; FSTL1; TSC-36

Citations for Recombinant Human Follistatin-like 1 Protein, CF

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

5 Citations: Showing 1 - 5
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  1. Follistatin-like 1 (FSTL1) interacts with Wnt ligands and Frizzled receptors to enhance Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in obstructed kidneys in vivo
    Authors: Y Zhang, Y Wang, G Zheng, Y Liu, J Li, H Huang, C Xu, Y Zeng, X Zhang, J Qin, C Dai, HO Hambrock, U Hartmann, B Feng, KK Mak, Y Liu, HY Lan, Y Huang, ZH Zheng, Y Xia
    The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 2022;0(0):102010.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Cell Culture
  2. FSTL1 promotes growth and metastasis in gastric cancer by activating AKT related pathway and predicts poor survival
    Authors: M Wu, Y Ding, N Wu, J Jiang, Y Huang, F Zhang, H Wang, Q Zhou, Y Yang, W Zhuo, L Teng
    American journal of cancer research, 2021;11(3):712-728.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  3. Follistatin-like 1 protects against hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in mice
    Authors: W Zhang, W Wang, J Liu, J Li, J Wang, Y Zhang, Z Zhang, Y Liu, Y Jin, J Li, J Cao, C Wang, W Ning, J Wang
    Sci Rep, 2017;7(0):45820.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: In Vivo
  4. A holistic approach to dissecting SPARC family protein complexity reveals FSTL-1 as an inhibitor of pancreatic cancer cell growth
    Sci Rep, 2016;6(0):37839.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  5. Epicardial FSTL1 reconstitution regenerates the adult mammalian heart.
    Authors: Wei K, Serpooshan V, Hurtado C, Diez-Cunado M, Zhao M, Maruyama S, Zhu W, Fajardo G, Noseda M, Nakamura K, Tian X, Liu Q, Wang A, Matsuura Y, Bushway P, Cai W, Savchenko A, Mahmoudi M, Schneider M, van den Hoff M, Butte M, Yang P, Walsh K, Zhou B, Bernstein D, Mercola M, Ruiz-Lozano P
    Nature, 2015;525(7570):479-85.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay


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