Recombinant Human Galectin-9 Protein, CF
Recombinant Human Galectin-9 Protein, CF Summary
CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.
In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.
|Formulation||Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in MOPS, NaCl, EDTA, DTT and Trehalose.|
|Reconstitution||Reconstitute at 200 μg/mL in PBS.|
|Shipping||The product is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.|
|Stability & Storage:||Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Recombinant Human Galectin-9 supports the adhesion of Jurkat human acute T cell leukemia cells. The ED50for this effect is 0.75-4.5 μg/mL.
Galectins comprise a family of multifunctional carbohydrate-binding proteins with specificity for N-acetyl-lactosamine-containing glycoproteins. At least 14 mammalian Galectins share structural similarities in their carbohydrate recognition domains (CRD), forming three groups: prototype (one CRD), tandem-repeat (two CRDs), and chimeric (one CRD, unique N-terminus) (1, 2). Full length Galectin-9 is a widely expressed 39 kDa tandem-repeat Galectin that contains two CRDs connected by a linker region (3). Progressive deletion within the linker region generates a 36 kDa isoform, also known as Ecalectin or UAT, as well as a 35 kDa isoform (4). This recombinant protein corresponds to the Ecalectin isoform of human Galectin-9 and shares 70% and 73% aa sequence identity with the corresponding regions of mouse and rat Galectin-9, respectively. Galectin-9 exhibits a wide range of activities. All three isoforms function as eosinophil chemoattractants (5, 6). This activity is destroyed by thrombin-mediated cleavage within the linker region of the long isoform, although the Ecalectin isoform is resistant to thrombin (7). Galectin-9 binds to carbohydrate moieties of IgE, thereby preventing immune complex formation, mast cell degranulation, and asthmatic and cutaneous anaphylaxis reactions (8). Independent of its lectin properties, Galectin-9 induces the maturation of dendritic cells which promote Th1 polarization (9). Galectin-9 induces cellular apoptosis in part by direct binding to TIM-3 (10, 11). Its interaction with TIM-3 inhibits Th1 cell and CD8+ cytotoxic T cell responses and also promotes regulatory T cell differentiation and activity (11, 12). Galectin-9 suppresses tumor cell metastasis by interfering with the associations between hyaluronic acid and CD44 and between VCAM-1 and Integrin alpha 4 beta 1 (13). The Ecalectin isoform (UAT; urate transporter) can also be expressed as an integral membrane protein and mediate the cellular efflux of urate (14).
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- Leal-Pinto, E. et al. (2002) Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 283:F150.
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