Recombinant Human Galectin-9 Protein, CF

HEK293 rh Galectin-9 (Catalog # 9064-GA) is also available. TIM-3 binding is weaker than the E. coli version!
Catalog # Availability Size / Price Qty
2045-GA-050
2045-GA-01M
Recombinant Human Galectin-9 Protein, CF SDS-PAGE
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Product Details
Citations (4)
FAQs
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Recombinant Human Galectin-9 Protein, CF Summary

Purity
>95%, by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions and visualized by silver stain.
Endotoxin Level
<1.0 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.
Activity
Measured by its ability to induce apoptosis of Jurkat human acute T cell leukemia cells. Lu, L.H. et al. (2007) J. Biochem. 141:157. The ED50 for this effect is 1-5 μg/mL. Measured by its binding ability in a functional ELISA. Immobilized Recombinant Human Galectin-9 at 500 ng/mL can bind Recombinant Human TIM-3 Fc Chimera (Catalog # 2365-TM) with an apparent Kd <30 nM.
Source
E. coli-derived human Galectin-9 protein
Ala2-Thr323
Accession #
N-terminal Sequence
Analysis
Ala2
Structure / Form
Monomer
Predicted Molecular Mass
35.8 kDa
SDS-PAGE
34 kDa, reducing conditions

Product Datasheets

Carrier Free

What does CF mean?

CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.

What formulation is right for me?

In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.

2045-GA

Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in MOPS, NaCl, EDTA, DTT and Trehalose.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 100 μg/mL in water.
Shipping The product is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage:
  • 12 months from date of receipt, ≤ -20 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, ≤ -20 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.

Data Images

SDS-PAGE SDS-PAGE View Larger

1 μg/lane of Recombinant Human Galectin-9 was resolved with SDS-PAGE under reducing (R) conditions and visualized by silver staining, showing a single band at 34 kDa.

Bioactivity Bioactivity View Larger

Recombinant Human Galectin-9 (Catalog # 2045-GA) induces apoptosis of the Jurkat human acute T cell leukemia cell line. The ED50 for this effect is 1-5 μg/mL.

Reconstitution Calculator

Reconstitution Calculator

The reconstitution calculator allows you to quickly calculate the volume of a reagent to reconstitute your vial. Simply enter the mass of reagent and the target concentration and the calculator will determine the rest.

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Background: Galectin-9

Galectins comprise a family of multifunctional carbohydrate-binding proteins with specificity for N‑acetyl-lactosamine-containing glycoproteins. At least 14 mammalian Galectins share structural similarities in their carbohydrate recognition domains (CRD), forming three groups: prototype (one CRD), tandem-repeat (two CRDs), and chimeric (one CRD, unique N‑terminus) (1, 2). Full length Galectin-9 is a widely expressed 39 kDa tandem-repeat Galectin that contains two CRDs connected by a linker region (3). Progressive deletion within the linker region generates a 36 kDa isoform, also known as Ecalectin or UAT, as well as a 35 kDa isoform (4). This recombinant protein corresponds to the Ecalectin isoform of human Galectin-9 and shares 70% and 73% aa sequence identity with the corresponding regions of mouse and rat Galectin-9, respectively. Galectin-9 exhibits a wide range of activities. All three isoforms function as eosinophil chemoattractants (5, 6). This activity is destroyed by thrombin-mediated cleavage within the linker region of the long isoform, although the Ecalectin isoform is resistant to thrombin (7). Galectin-9 binds to carbohydrate moieties of IgE, thereby preventing immune complex formation, mast cell degranulation, and asthmatic and cutaneous anaphylaxis reactions (8). Independent of its lectin properties, Galectin-9 induces the maturation of dendritic cells which promote Th1 polarization (9). Galectin-9 induces cellular apoptosis in part by direct binding to TIM-3 (10, 11). Its interaction with TIM-3 inhibits Th1 cell and CD8+ cytotoxic T cell responses and also promotes regulatory T cell differentiation and activity (11, 12). Galectin-9 suppresses tumor cell metastasis by interfering with the associations between hyaluronic acid and CD44 and between VCAM-1 and Integrin alpha 4 beta 1 (13). The Ecalectin isoform (UAT; urate transporter) can also be expressed as an integral membrane protein and mediate the cellular efflux of urate (14).

References
  1. Yang, R-Y. et al. (2008) Expert Rev. Mol. Med. 10:e17.
  2. Elola, M. T. et al. (2007) Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 64:1679.
  3. Tureci, O. et al. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272:6416.
  4. Chabot, S. et al. (2002) Glycobiology 12:111.
  5. Matsumoto, R. et al. (2002) J. Immunol. 168:1961.
  6. Sato, M. et al. (2002) Glycobiology 12:191.
  7. Nishi, N. et al. (2006) Glycobiology 16:15C.
  8. Niki, T. et al. (2009) J. Biol. Chem. 284:32344.
  9. Dai, S.-Y. et al. (2005) J. Immunol. 175:2974.
  10. Seki, M. et al. (2007) Arthritis Rheum. 56:3968.
  11. Zhu, C. et al. (2005) Nat. Immunol. 6:1245.
  12. Sehrawat, S. et al. (2010) PloS Pathogens 6:e1000882.
  13. Nobumoto, A. et al. (2008) Glycobiology 18:735.
  14. Leal-Pinto, E. et al. (2002) Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 283:F150.
Entrez Gene IDs
3965 (Human); 16859 (Mouse)
Alternate Names
Ecalectin; GAL9; gal-9; galectin 9; Galectin9; Galectin-9; HUAT; lectin, galactoside-binding, soluble, 9; LGALS9; LGALS9A; MGC117375; MGC125973; MGC125974; Tumor antigen HOM-HD-21; urate transporter/channel protein

Citations for Recombinant Human Galectin-9 Protein, CF

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

4 Citations: Showing 1 - 4
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  1. The immune receptor Tim-3 acts as a trafficker in a Tim-3/galectin-9 autocrine loop in human myeloid leukemia cells
    Authors: I Gonçalves, L Rüegg, BF Gibbs, M Bardelli, A Fruehwirth, L Varani, SM Berger, E Fasler-Kan, VV Sumbayev
    Oncoimmunology, 2016;5(7):e1195535.
    Applications: Bioassay
  2. Graves' disease is associated with a defective expression of the immune regulatory molecule galectin-9 in antigen-presenting dendritic cells.
    Authors: Leskela S, Serrano A, de la Fuente H, Rodriguez-Munoz A, Ramos-Levi A, Sampedro-Nunez M, Sanchez-Madrid F, Gonzalez-Amaro R, Marazuela M
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(4):e0123938.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  3. Galectin-9 is a suppressor of T and B cells and predicts the immune modulatory potential of mesenchymal stromal cell preparations.
    Authors: Ungerer C, Quade-Lyssy P, Radeke H, Henschler R, Konigs C, Kohl U, Seifried E, Schuttrumpf J
    Stem Cells Dev, 2014;23(7):755-66.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  4. Galectin-9 controls CD40 signaling through a Tim-3 independent mechanism and redirects the cytokine profile of pathogenic T cells in autoimmunity.
    Authors: Vaitaitis GM, Wagner DH,
    PLoS ONE, 2012;7(6):e38708.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay

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