Recombinant Human Galectin-9 Protein, CF
Recombinant Human Galectin-9 Protein, CF Summary
CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.
In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.
|Formulation||Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in MOPS, NaCl, EDTA, DTT and Trehalose.|
|Reconstitution||Reconstitute at 100 μg/mL in water.|
|Shipping||The product is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.|
|Stability & Storage:||
1 μg/lane of Recombinant Human Galectin-9 was resolved with SDS-PAGE under reducing (R) conditions and visualized by silver staining, showing a single band at 34 kDa.
Recombinant Human Galectin-9 (Catalog # 2045-GA) induces apoptosis of the Jurkat human acute T cell leukemia cell line. The ED50 for this effect is 1-5 μg/mL.
Galectins comprise a family of multifunctional carbohydrate-binding proteins with specificity for N‑acetyl-lactosamine-containing glycoproteins. At least 14 mammalian Galectins share structural similarities in their carbohydrate recognition domains (CRD), forming three groups: prototype (one CRD), tandem-repeat (two CRDs), and chimeric (one CRD, unique N‑terminus) (1, 2). Full length Galectin-9 is a widely expressed 39 kDa tandem-repeat Galectin that contains two CRDs connected by a linker region (3). Progressive deletion within the linker region generates a 36 kDa isoform, also known as Ecalectin or UAT, as well as a 35 kDa isoform (4). This recombinant protein corresponds to the Ecalectin isoform of human Galectin-9 and shares 70% and 73% aa sequence identity with the corresponding regions of mouse and rat Galectin-9, respectively. Galectin-9 exhibits a wide range of activities. All three isoforms function as eosinophil chemoattractants (5, 6). This activity is destroyed by thrombin-mediated cleavage within the linker region of the long isoform, although the Ecalectin isoform is resistant to thrombin (7). Galectin-9 binds to carbohydrate moieties of IgE, thereby preventing immune complex formation, mast cell degranulation, and asthmatic and cutaneous anaphylaxis reactions (8). Independent of its lectin properties, Galectin-9 induces the maturation of dendritic cells which promote Th1 polarization (9). Galectin-9 induces cellular apoptosis in part by direct binding to TIM-3 (10, 11). Its interaction with TIM-3 inhibits Th1 cell and CD8+ cytotoxic T cell responses and also promotes regulatory T cell differentiation and activity (11, 12). Galectin-9 suppresses tumor cell metastasis by interfering with the associations between hyaluronic acid and CD44 and between VCAM-1 and Integrin alpha 4 beta 1 (13). The Ecalectin isoform (UAT; urate transporter) can also be expressed as an integral membrane protein and mediate the cellular efflux of urate (14).
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- Sehrawat, S. et al. (2010) PloS Pathogens 6:e1000882.
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- Leal-Pinto, E. et al. (2002) Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 283:F150.
Citations for Recombinant Human Galectin-9 Protein, CF
R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.
Citations: Showing 1 - 4
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The immune receptor Tim-3 acts as a trafficker in a Tim-3/galectin-9 autocrine loop in human myeloid leukemia cells
Authors: I Gonçalves, L Rüegg, BF Gibbs, M Bardelli, A Fruehwirth, L Varani, SM Berger, E Fasler-Kan, VV Sumbayev
Graves' disease is associated with a defective expression of the immune regulatory molecule galectin-9 in antigen-presenting dendritic cells.
Authors: Leskela S, Serrano A, de la Fuente H, Rodriguez-Munoz A, Ramos-Levi A, Sampedro-Nunez M, Sanchez-Madrid F, Gonzalez-Amaro R, Marazuela M
PLoS ONE, 2015;10(4):e0123938.
Sample Types: Whole Cells
Galectin-9 is a suppressor of T and B cells and predicts the immune modulatory potential of mesenchymal stromal cell preparations.
Authors: Ungerer C, Quade-Lyssy P, Radeke H, Henschler R, Konigs C, Kohl U, Seifried E, Schuttrumpf J
Stem Cells Dev, 2014;23(7):755-66.
Sample Types: Whole Cells
Galectin-9 controls CD40 signaling through a Tim-3 independent mechanism and redirects the cytokine profile of pathogenic T cells in autoimmunity.
Authors: Vaitaitis GM, Wagner DH,
PLoS ONE, 2012;7(6):e38708.
Sample Types: Whole Cells
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