Recombinant Human Integrin alpha 6 (X1) beta 4 Protein, CF
Recombinant Human Integrin alpha 6 (X1) beta 4 Protein, CF Summary
|Human Integrin alpha 6
Accession # NP_000201
|Human Integrin beta 4
Accession # P16144
CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.
In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.
|Formulation||Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS.|
|Reconstitution||Reconstitute at 200 μg/mL in sterile PBS.|
|Shipping||The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.|
|Stability & Storage:||Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Background: Integrin alpha 6 beta 4
Integrin alpha 6 beta 4 is an epithelial and Schwann cell laminin-binding integrin. While alpha 6 can also pair with beta 1, beta 4 pairs only with alpha 6 (1-3). Expression of the non-covalent heterodimer composed of a ~150 kDa alpha 6/CD49f and 150-200 kDa beta 4/CD104 type I transmembrane glycoprotein subunit is required for hemidesmosome formation (2, 4). The alpha 6 subunit contains an I (inhibitory) domain and a cleavage site that creates extracellular heavy and transmembrane light chains. Alternative splicing in the alpha 6 extracellular domain (ECD) at amino acid (aa) 216 creates X1 (ubiquitous), X2 and X1X2 isoforms, while splicing at a cytoplasmic site creates A and B isoforms (5, 6). The cytoplasmic domain of beta 4 is unusually long (~1000 aa) and contains four type III fibronectin repeats that bind intracellular hemidesmosomal components (2, 4, 7). Alternative splicing between repeats # 2 and 3 creates A, B, C and (truncated) D isoforms (7). All ECD variants share similar ligand binding characteristics, while cytoplasmic variants differ in tissue distribution and signaling pathways (5-7). The 683 aa human alpha 6X1 heavy chain shares 94-95% aa identity with mouse, rat, bovine, and canine a6, and the 683 aa human beta 4 ECD shares 87-92% aa identity with mouse, rat, bovine, and equine beta 4. Mutation of alpha 6 beta 4 can cause EB-PA, or epidermolysis bullosa (detachment of epidermis from basement membrane) with pyloric atresia, that is neonatally lethal if severe (8). On Schwann cells, alpha 6 beta 4 cooperates with dystroglycan to stabilize the myelin sheath, and mediates attachment to the basal lamina (9, 10). High alpha 6 beta 4 expression correlates with invasiveness of carcinomas (2). EGF R-induced phosphorylation of beta 4 disrupts hemidesmosomes and allows tumor cell migration (11, 12). alpha 6 beta 4 signaling can also amplify tumor production of VEGF and ErbB proteins (13, 14).
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Citations for Recombinant Human Integrin alpha 6 (X1) beta 4 Protein, CF
R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.
Citations: Showing 1 - 4
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Enteric Species F Human Adenoviruses use Laminin-Binding Integrins as Co-Receptors for Infection of Ht-29 Cells
Authors: A Rajan, BD Persson, L Frängsmyr, A Olofsson, L Sandblad, J Heino, Y Takada, AP Mould, LM Schnapp, J Gall, N Arnberg
Sci Rep, 2018;8(1):10019.
Applications: Surface Plasmon Resonance
Granzyme B is elevated in autoimmune blistering diseases and cleaves key anchoring proteins of the dermal-epidermal junction
Authors: V Russo, T Klein, DJ Lim, N Solis, Y Machado, S Hiroyasu, L Nabai, Y Shen, MR Zeglinski, H Zhao, CP Oram, PA Lennox, N Van Laeken, NJ Carr, RI Crawford, CW Franzke, CM Overall, DJ Granville
Sci Rep, 2018;8(1):9690.
Applications: Enzyme Assay
Ex vivo pathogenicity of anti-laminin gamma1 autoantibodies.
Authors: Florea F, Bernards C, Caproni M, Kleindienst J, Hashimoto T, Koch M, Sitaru C
Am J Pathol, 2014;184(2):494-506.
Sample Types: Serum
IgG and IgM autoantibody differences in discoid and systemic lupus patients.
Authors: Chong, Benjamin, Tseng, Lin-chia, Lee, Thomas, Vasquez, Rebecca, Li, Quan Z, Zhang, Song, Karp, David R, Olsen, Nancy J, Mohan, Chandra
J Invest Dermatol, 2012;132(12):2770-9.
Sample Types: N/A
Applications: ELISA (Standard)
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