Recombinant Human Integrin alpha 6 (X1) beta 4 Protein, CF

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Recombinant Human Integrin alpha 6 (X1) beta 4 Protein, CF Summary

Product Specifications

>95%, by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions and visualized by silver stain.
Endotoxin Level
<0.10 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.
Measured by its binding ability in a functional ELISA. When Mouse Laminin I (Catalog # 3400-010-02) is coated at 10 μg/mL, Recombinant Human Integrin alpha 6 beta 4 binds with an apparent KD <5 nM.
Chinese Hamster Ovary cell line, CHO-derived human Integrin alpha 6 beta 4 protein
Human Integrin alpha 6
Accession # NP_000201
Acidic Tail HHHHHH
Human Integrin beta 4
Accession # P16144
Basic Tail
N-terminus C-terminus
N-terminal Sequence
Phe24 ( alpha 6) & Asn28 ( beta 4)
Predicted Molecular Mass
104 kDa ( alpha 6) & 84.8 kDa ( beta 4)
125-135 kDa ( alpha 6) & 100-110 kDa ( beta 4), reducing conditions

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Carrier Free

What does CF mean?

CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.

What formulation is right for me?

In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.


Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 200 μg/mL in sterile PBS.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
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Background: Integrin alpha 6 beta 4

Integrin alpha 6 beta 4 is an epithelial and Schwann cell laminin-binding integrin. While alpha 6 can also pair with beta 1, beta 4 pairs only with alpha 6 (1-3). Expression of the non-covalent heterodimer composed of a ~150 kDa alpha 6/CD49f and 150-200 kDa beta 4/CD104 type I transmembrane glycoprotein subunit is required for hemidesmosome formation (2, 4). The alpha 6 subunit contains an I (inhibitory) domain and a cleavage site that creates extracellular heavy and transmembrane light chains. Alternative splicing in the alpha 6 extracellular domain (ECD) at amino acid (aa) 216 creates X1 (ubiquitous), X2 and X1X2 isoforms, while splicing at a cytoplasmic site creates A and B isoforms (5, 6). The cytoplasmic domain of beta 4 is unusually long (~1000 aa) and contains four type III fibronectin repeats that bind intracellular hemidesmosomal components (2, 4, 7). Alternative splicing between repeats # 2 and 3 creates A, B, C and (truncated) D isoforms (7). All ECD variants share similar ligand binding characteristics, while cytoplasmic variants differ in tissue distribution and signaling pathways (5-7). The 683 aa human alpha 6X1 heavy chain shares 94-95% aa identity with mouse, rat, bovine, and canine a6, and the 683 aa human beta 4 ECD shares 87-92% aa identity with mouse, rat, bovine, and equine beta 4. Mutation of alpha 6 beta 4 can cause EB-PA, or epidermolysis bullosa (detachment of epidermis from basement membrane) with pyloric atresia, that is neonatally lethal if severe (8). On Schwann cells, alpha 6 beta 4 cooperates with dystroglycan to stabilize the myelin sheath, and mediates attachment to the basal lamina (9, 10). High alpha 6 beta 4 expression correlates with invasiveness of carcinomas (2). EGF R-induced phosphorylation of beta 4 disrupts hemidesmosomes and allows tumor cell migration (11, 12). alpha 6 beta 4 signaling can also amplify tumor production of VEGF and ErbB proteins (13, 14).

  1. Takada, Y. et al. (2007) Genome Biol. 8:215.
  2. Wilhelmsen, K. et al. (2006) Mol. Cell. Biol. 26:2877.
  3. Nishiuchi, R. et al. (2006) Matrix Biol. 25:189.
  4. Schaapveld, R. Q. J. et al. (1998) J. Cell Biol. 142:271.
  5. Delwel, G. O. et al. (1995) Cell Adhes. Commun. 3:143.
  6. Hogervorst, F. et al. (1993) J. Cell Biol. 121:179.
  7. van Leusden, M. R. et al. (1997) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 235:826.
  8. Pulkkinen, L. et al. (1998) Am. J. Hum. Genet. 63:1376.
  9. Nodari, A. et al. (2008) J. Neurosci. 28:6714.
  10. Amici, S. A. et al. (2006) J. Neurosci. 26:1179.
  11. Wilhelmsen, K. et al. (2007) Mol. Biol. Cell 18:3512.
  12. Yang, X. H. et al. (2008) Cancer Res. 68:3204.
  13. Lipscomb, E. A. et al. (2005) Cancer Res. 65:10970.
  14. Folgiero, V. et al. (2007) Cancer Res. 67:1645.
Entrez Gene IDs
3655 (Human); 16407 (Mouse)
Alternate Names
Integrin alpha 6 beta 4

Citations for Recombinant Human Integrin alpha 6 (X1) beta 4 Protein, CF

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

4 Citations: Showing 1 - 4
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  1. Enteric Species F Human Adenoviruses use Laminin-Binding Integrins as Co-Receptors for Infection of Ht-29 Cells
    Authors: A Rajan, BD Persson, L Frängsmyr, A Olofsson, L Sandblad, J Heino, Y Takada, AP Mould, LM Schnapp, J Gall, N Arnberg
    Sci Rep, 2018;8(1):10019.
    Applications: Surface Plasmon Resonance
  2. Granzyme B is elevated in autoimmune blistering diseases and cleaves key anchoring proteins of the dermal-epidermal junction
    Authors: V Russo, T Klein, DJ Lim, N Solis, Y Machado, S Hiroyasu, L Nabai, Y Shen, MR Zeglinski, H Zhao, CP Oram, PA Lennox, N Van Laeken, NJ Carr, RI Crawford, CW Franzke, CM Overall, DJ Granville
    Sci Rep, 2018;8(1):9690.
    Applications: Enzyme Assay
  3. Ex vivo pathogenicity of anti-laminin gamma1 autoantibodies.
    Authors: Florea F, Bernards C, Caproni M, Kleindienst J, Hashimoto T, Koch M, Sitaru C
    Am J Pathol, 2014;184(2):494-506.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Serum
    Applications: Bioassay
  4. IgG and IgM autoantibody differences in discoid and systemic lupus patients.
    Authors: Chong, Benjamin, Tseng, Lin-chia, Lee, Thomas, Vasquez, Rebecca, Li, Quan Z, Zhang, Song, Karp, David R, Olsen, Nancy J, Mohan, Chandra
    J Invest Dermatol, 2012;132(12):2770-9.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: N/A
    Applications: ELISA (Standard)


  1. What is the amino acid sequence of the acidic and basic tails?

    • Acidic and basic tails are added to the protein to help facilitate optimal activity. While we generally include sequence information on the product datasheet, the sequences of these tails are considered confidential information.

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Reviews for Recombinant Human Integrin alpha 6 (X1) beta 4 Protein, CF

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Recombinant Human Integrin alpha 6 (X1) beta 4 Protein, CF
By Anonymous on 10/27/2020
Application: Media additive for protein or antibody production

Recombinant Human Integrin alpha 6 (X1) beta 4 Protein, CF
By Anonymous on 10/27/2020
Application: Binding assay/Protein-protein interaction

Recombinant Human Integrin alpha 6 (X1) beta 4 Protein, CF
By Anonymous on 03/22/2018
Application: CellProlif