Recombinant Human Integrin alpha M beta 2 Protein, CF Summary
|Human Integrin alpha M
Accession # NP_001139280
|Human Integrin beta 2
Accession # P05107
CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.
In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.
|Formulation||Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in Tris, NaCl and MgCl2.|
|Reconstitution||Reconstitute at 100 μg/mL in sterile PBS.|
|Shipping||The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.|
|Stability & Storage:||Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Background: Integrin alpha M beta 2
Integrin alpha M beta 2, also called MAC-1 or complement receptor type 3 (CR3), is one of three leukocyte beta 2 integrins. The non-covalent heterodimer of 170 kDa alpha M/CD11b and 95 kDa beta 2/CD18 integrin subunits is expressed mainly on myeloid and natural killer cells (1-6). The alpha M vWFA or I-domain, which contains adhesion sites, forms the N-terminal head region with the alpha M beta -propeller and the beta 2 vWFA domain. Unlike most integrins, the calf domain of alpha M is lectin-like and binds carbohydrates (7). Each subunit has a transmembrane sequence and a short cytoplasmic tail. The 1088 amino acid (aa) human alpha M/CD11b ECD shares 73-76% aa sequence identity with mouse, rat, bovine, and canine alpha M, while the 678 aa human beta 2/CD18 ECD shares 81 - 83% aa sequence identity with mouse, rat, bovine, canine, goat, sheep, and porcine beta 2. Like other integrins, alpha M beta 2 has multiple activation states (1-3). In the presence of divalent cations and "inside-out" signaling, alpha M beta 2 is fully active and extended. In the inactive state, the heterodimer flexes in the center at the alpha M thigh and calf domains and beta 2 I-EGF domains, impeding access to adhesion sites. Active alpha M beta 2 binds an unusually large number of adhesion partners, including the complement opsonin fragment iC3b, coagulation proteins fibrinogen, plasminogen and factor X, extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins fibronectin, laminin and collagen, and cell surface ICAMs, myelin basic protein and DC-SIGN (3, 4, 7). alpha M beta 2 lectin-like adhesion partners include heparin, bacterial lipopolysaccharides, and GPI-linked glycoproteins such as uPAR and Fc gamma RIIIB (3, 7). Binding of platelet JAM-C links platelets with myeloid and dendritic cell (DC) alpha M beta 2 and recruits these cells to inflamed or injured endothelium, while neutrophil alpha M beta 2 adheres to RAGE on inflamed endothelium; both are atherogenic events (3, 8, 9). However, activation of alpha M beta 2 inhibits alternative activation of macrophages and atherosclerotic foam cell formation (3, 10). alpha M beta 2 can either suppress or allow constitutive neutrophil apoptosis, depending on its ligand and activation state (3, 11, 12). Deletion of mouse alpha M causes defects in neutrophil adhesion and degranulation, while mutations of human or mouse beta 2 cause leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD-1) and susceptibility to bacterial infections (3, 12, 13).
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Citations for Recombinant Human Integrin alpha M beta 2 Protein, CF
R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.
Citations: Showing 1 - 3
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Broad spectrum activity of a lectin-like bacterial serine protease family on human leukocytes.
Authors: Ayala-Lujan, Jorge Lu, Vijayakumar, Vidhya, Gong, Mei, Smith, Rachel, Santiago, Araceli, Ruiz-Perez, Fernando
PLoS ONE, 2014;9(9):e107920.
Sample Types: Protein
Applications: Enzyme Assay Substrate
Complement Receptor Mac-1 Is an Adaptor for NB1 (CD177)-mediated PR3-ANCA Neutrophil Activation.
Authors: Jerke U, Rolle S, Dittmar G, Bayat B, Santoso S, Sporbert A, Luft F, Kettritz R
J. Biol. Chem., 2011;286(9):7070-81.
Sample Types: Recombinant Protein
Applications: Surface Plasmon Resonance
Low anticoagulant heparin targets multiple sites of inflammation, suppresses heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, and inhibits interaction of RAGE with its ligands.
Authors: Rao NV, Argyle B, Xu X, Reynolds PR, Walenga JM, Prechel M, Prestwich GD, MacArthur RB, Walters BB, Hoidal JR, Kennedy TP
Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol., 2010;299(1):C97-110.
Sample Types: Protein
Applications: Binding Assay
What is the amino acid sequence of the acidic and basic tails?
Acidic and basic tails are added to the protein to help facilitate optimal activity. While we generally include sequence information on the product datasheet, the sequences of these tails are considered confidential information.
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